Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

75 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Name the 5 kingdoms an example of each
Monera- bacteria, cyanobacteria(streptococcus)
Protista: alge protozoa(spirogyra)
Fungi: yeast, penicillum(mushrooms)
name the four reagents in gram stain
1) primary stain (crystal violet-), stains all cells deep blue)
2) mordant (grams iodine), comples bond btx cell wall of G+ and crystal violet
3) third reagent (ethyl alchohol) washes crystal violet of G- cell walls)
4) counter stain (safranin 0 stains G- cells)
what antigens and anti bodies are on each blood type
A= A antigen , Anit-b antibodies
B=B antigen and Anti-A antibodies
AB= A&B antigens, no antibodies
O= No antigens, Anit-A and Anti-B antibodies
What is a slelective media, why selective
it prohibits the growth of unwanted organisms and encourages the growth of organisms u want, EX. Mannitol salt agar- high salt prohibis growth of most organsims allows growth of staphylococcous( when fermentation occurs it turns turns yellow (acid by product)
waht is a general purpose media
media will support the growth fo most types of organisms. not specific for G- or G+ may be liquid broth or solid agar. EX. blood agar plates or soy agar
what is a differential media and why is it differentail
allows u to tell the difference between similar organisms. manatol is also differential, it will diferentiate staph aureus (ferments)s and staph epdiermis(doesnt ferment)
what is the process of autocalving
exposing media foro 15 min at 15 psi at 121C
what are the steps of simple staning
one step , all stained one color, cover smear with methylene blue for 45 seconds then rinse with water don not let water stike smear, blot with bibulous paper.
what is fermentataion
enzymatically controlled ANEROBIC, breakdown of carbohydrate or sugar.
What are the by products of fermentation
ACIDS- (lactic, acetic, formic)
NEUTRAL PRODUCTS-( alchohol, butanediol)
GASES- (hydrogen, carbon dioxide)
what constitutes the optical sysetm on microscope
Ocular, objectives, and body tube
what constitutes the light system on a microscope
lamp diaphragm, and condenser
wht is the ocular
the peice u look thru (magnification of 10x)
what is the objective lenses
the three lenses ( magnifications low= 10x10=100, high 10x43=430, oil 10x97=970
what is the revolving nose peice,
the rotating potrion the objective lenses are mounted on
waht is the condenser
controls the amount of light
what is the diaphragm
adjustable "iris" control light
waht is a parfocal system?
microscope that when focuses at one objective lens can be changed to another and still be in focus
waht is resolving power of a microscope
ability of a microscope to separate fine detail such as two points close together (most microscopes have resolving power of 0.2 microns
what is the working distance of a microscope
distance btx the objective lens and the specimin on the slide
what is the diamater of feld of view at low power
1.4 mm
what is the diameter of feild of view wiht high power
.3 mm
what is the diameter of feild of view of oil immersion objective
.16 mm
what is specific to Prokaryotic cells
circular dna, no organells, no neucleus, uni cellular,
what is specific to eukaryotic cells
liner dna, have organells
(animals - no rigid cell walls)
(plants--have rigid cell walls)
three basic shapes of Bacteria
rods(bacilli),round( cocci) , and spiral( spirrilum)
cynao bacteria use what for food source
sunlight and water wiht use of chlorophyll, . autotrophic meaning use of co2 as a carbon source.
what is the most diverse kingdom?
whatsexual reporduction does algae, and protozoa have
sexual and Asexual
Kingdon fungi contains??
mushrooms, lichens, multicellular molds and yeasts
what is morphology
the study of size, shape , and arrangement of bacterial cells
waht are spheres in bacterial called
what are rods called in bacteria
what are spirals called in bacteria
waht are two other non common shapes of bacteria
stella)(star shaped), square shaped(haloarcula)
what is the color in a stain called
a chromophore
waht type of ion is associated with a basic dye
negative ion
what type of ion is associated with ant acidic dye
positive ions
what dye is used for a simple stain
methylene blue dye
what is the most common problem with making a smear
too many cells on the slide
what is heat fixation, waht does it do
1) kills viable cells, 2) causes cells to adhere to slide
gram stain is what kind of stain/
differental shows btx G+ and G-
why do we stain bacteria
to better view cells
why do we use basic dye in general staining
it attatches to the neg ion
waht is a defined medium
a medium we knwo the exact make up of
what is a complex medium
a mediun tha twe dont know the make up of (ex. broth meduim)
growth in a broth is shown be what
what is bacteria incubated at
37c (normal body temp) not longer than 48 hours
what are the microbes of the upper resp. tract
staphylococcus, streptococcus lacto bacteria, adn bacteroides(G+)
what are opportunistic pathogens
can cause infection under abnormal conditions (ex. break in skin, depressed immune system)
what is a blood agar plate enriched with
5% sheep blood
waht does beta hemolysis show and mean
clear zone due to the complete lysis of the red blood cells
what does gamma hemolysis show and mean
no hemolysis
what does alpha hemolysis mean and show
light greenish color around colonies, shows partial hemolysis
what dos TSA stand for in the agar plate
Tryptic soy agar
what causes the blood agar to change color,
the lysis of the blood cells
where in or on body would u expect to find microbes,
would find them on skin, hair follicules and sebacous glands.
what is respiration
it is the complete breakdown of sugars with oxygen as the final electron receptor (areobic) most efficent...
staphylococcus aureus:
normal nasal flora, causes, boils food poisoning
staphylococcus epidermis
found on skin and good for us
what are the three pathogenic streptococci. waht do they cause
1) streptococcus pyogens:
strep throat , scarlet fever
2) streptococcous pneumoniae
pneumonia(found in nose and throat)
3)streptococcus faceallis:
found in gi tract nosocomal infections
two type of bacteria expected to find in humans skin
staph. epidermis, micrococcus
what makes bile esculin agar selective media and what makes it differential
bile salts , only enterococci can live in it, this makes it selective, its differential because onlystrep facealis can hydrolyze the esculin
what makes salt agar selective/ and differential
the high salt concentration makes it selective for staph. it kills others. it is differential for staph aureus (fermentation) and staph epidermidus (non fermentaion)
what does super oxide do?
it is turned into hydrogen peroxide and oxygen
what does hydrogen peroxide do
it is turned into whater and oxygen by catalase
what is an example of catalase postivie organisms
staphylococcus and Bacillus
waht does aglutinate mean
to clump, join together in a cluster
what is an allel
alternate form of a gene
waht is an antigen
a foreign substance that ellicits an immune response and reacts with specific antibodies
who discovered the 4 types of blood
karl landsteiner aroun 1900
what is antigen D
it is the Rh Factor Rh+ has the antigen Rh - lacks
waht is erythoblastosis
when a fetus maternal anti Rh bodies enter the fetal circulation causing agglutination and hemolysis of fetal erythrocytes
what is the universal blood donor
type o
what is theuniversal recipiant
type ab