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40 Cards in this Set

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What antiviral medications are used against HIV?
AZT, Zidovudine, Tenofovir, Efavirenz, Tipranavir, Enfurvitide
What is the function of AZT and Zidovudine?
Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor (HIV)
What is the function of Tenofovir?
Nucleotide Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor (HIV)
What is the function of Efavirenz?
Non-nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor (HIV)
What is the function of Tipranavir?
Protease Inhibitor (HIV)
What is the funciton of Enfurvitide?
Fusion Inhibitor
What are the side effects of AZT and Zidovudine?
Bone marrow decrease
What are the side effects of Tenofovir?
Diarrhea
What are the side effects of Efavirenz?
Diarrhea, CNS
What antiviral medications are used against HSV-1, HSV-2, VZ, CMV, and EBV?
Acyclovir and Cidofovir
What is the function of Acyclovir?
Guanosine analog converted to AT. Commonly used for suppression and treatment of genital Herpes
What is the function of Cidofovir?
Acyclic nucleoside phosphate derivative. Does not require TK phosphorylation, used for resistant CMV-infected AIDS patients
What are the side effects of Acyclovir?
CNS related and rare
What are the side effects of Cidofovir?
Nephotoxic (always prehydrate w/ NS)
What antiviral medications are used against Influenza?
Amantidine (Inf. A), Rimantidine (Inf. A), Neuraminidase Inhibitor (Inf. A, B, and C)
What is the function of Amantidine?
Dopamine agonist used to manage Parkinsons Disease. Only covers influenza A. Used for individuals not candidates for vaccinations
What are the side effects of Amantidine?
Little CNS effects
What is the function of Rimantidine?
Hydrophilic analog fo amantidine with reduced CNS adverse effects. Costs more. Same uses as Amantidine
What are the side effects of Rimantidine?
Less side effects than amantidine (CNS related)
What is the function of Neuraminidase inhibitors?
Derivatives of amantidine. Inhibit enzyme critical to maturation and infectivity of newly produced viral particles. (viral neuraminidase).
What anitviral medication is used against Herpes labialis?
Penciclovir
What is the function of Penciclovir
Poor oral availability, only used topically every two hours for herpes labialis
What antiviral medication is used against HZ and genital herpes?
Valacyclovir
What is the function of Valacyclovir?
Prodrug formation of acyclovir which is rapidly converted to active form. Enhances drug delivery, serum level approach IV acyclovir
What are the side effects of Valacyclovir?
Headache, nausea, diarrhea, dizziness
What antiviral medication is used against HSV (recurrent) and HZ?
Famciclovir
What is the function of Famciclovir?
Prodrug of penciclovir with good oral absorption
What are the side effects of Famciclovir?
Headache, nausea, diarrhea, dizziness
What antiviral medications are used against Hep B and C?
Interferons and Ribavirin (also used against RSV)
What are the functions of Interferons?
Inhibit protein synthesis, cleave cellular RNA and DNA, block viral release
What are the functions of Ribavirin?
Guanosine nucleoside requires phosphorylation to triphosphate form. Most common clinical use is with Heptidic diseases. Only comes orally.
What are the side effects of Interferons?
Flu-like symptoms, depression, suicidal
What are the side effecsts of Ribavirin?
Nausea, lethargy, teratogenic/embryogenic
What antiviral medications are used against CMV (mainly), HIV, organ transplant, CMV retinitis (intravitreal device)?
Ganciclovir
What is the function of Ganciclovir
Nucleoside analog of guanine that eventually results in DNA chain termination in infected cells
What are the side effects of Ganciclovir
Neutropenia (30-40%)
High toxicity
What antiviral medications are used against Treatment resistant CMV and HSV. Also HSV-1, HSV-2, Influenza A & B, HIV, and Hep. B.
Foscarnet
What is the function of Foscarnet
Binds and inactivates DNA polymerase w/out phosphorylation by TK. Most commonly employed for resistant CMV and HSV. HIGHLY INTOLERABLE. Only available in IV, prehydration with NS essential to prevent renal toxicity.
What are the side effects of Foscarnet
Renal Toxicity (nephotoxic), increased seizure potential
Which antiretrovirals are used against Hep B
Lamivudine, Emtricitabine, Adefovir, Tenofovir