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170 Cards in this Set

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Adaptation of the eye for near vision by increasing the curvature of the lens
Accommodation
Unequal pupil size
Anisocoria
Gray-white arc or circle around the limbus of the iris that is common with aging
Arcus senilis
pupil does not react to light; does contrict with accommodation
Argyll Robertson pupil
refractive error of vision due to differences in curvature in refractive surgaces of the eye (cornea and lens)
Astigmatism
crossing paths of an artery and vein in the ocular fundus
A-V crossing
Loss of both temporal visual fields
Bitemporal hemianopsia
inflammation of the glands and eyelash follicles along the margin of the eyelids
blepharitis
opacity of the lens of the eye that develops slowly with aging and gradually obstructs vision
Cataract
infection or retention cyst of a meibomian gland, showing as a beady nodule on the eyelid
Chalazion
infection of the conjunctivea, "pinkeye"
Conjunctivitis
abnormal soft exudates visible as gray-white areas on the ocular fundus
Cotton-wool area
ratio of the width of the physiologic cup to the width of the optic disc, normally 1/2 or less
cup-disc ratio
unit of strength of the lens settings on the ophthalmoscope that changes focus on the eye structures
diopter
double vision
diplopia
benign deposits on the ocular fundus that show as round yellow dots and occur commonly with aging
drusen
lower eyelid loose and rolling outward
Ectropion
lower eyelid rolling inward
entropion
protruding eyeballs
exopthalmos
area of keenest vision at the center of the macula on the ocular fundus
fovea
a group of eye diseases characterized by increased intraocular pressure
glaucoma
(stye) red, painful pustule that is a localized infection of hair folliclue at eyelid margin
Hordeolum
the abnormal white rim of sclera visible between the upper eyelid and the iris when a person moves the eyes downward
lid lag
round darker area of the ocular fundus that mediates vision only from the central visual field
Macula
abnormal finding of round red dots on the ocular fundus that are localized dilatations of small vessels
microaneurysm
constricted pupils
miosis
dilated pupils
mydriasis
"nearsighted"; refractive error in which near vision is better than far vision
Myopia
involuntary, rapid rhythmic movement of the eyeball
Nystagmus
oculus dexter, or right eye
OD
Pallor of the optic disc due to partial or complete death of optic nerve
Optic atrophy
Area of ocular fundus in which blood vessels exit and enter
optic disc
oculus sinister, or left eye
OS
stasis of blood flow ou of the ocular fundus; sign of increased intracranial pressure
papilledema
decrease in power of accomodation that occurs with aging
Presbyopia
triangular opaque tissue on the nasal side of the conjunctiva that grows toward the center of the cornea
Pterygium
drooping of upper eyelid over the iris and possibly covering pupil
Ptosis
red glow that appears to fill the person's pupil when first visualized through the ophthalmoscope
red reflex
(squint, crossed eye) disparityof the eye axes
Strabismus
Soft, raised yellow plaques occurring on the skin at the inner corners of the eyes
Xanthelasma
Willful infliction of force that results in bodily harm, pain, and/or impairment of a person age 65 or older. Examples include pushing, slapping, hitting, shaking, burning, and rough handling
Elder Abuse
Physical harm (actual or potential) to person age 65 or older because of failure to provide for the person's well being. Examples include inadequate feeding and hydration, unsanitary living conditions, and poor personal hygiene.
Elder neglect (physical)
physical and/or sexual violence (use of physical force) or threat of such violence; also psychological/emotional abuse and/or coercive tactics when there has been prior physical and/or sexual violence between persons who are spouses, or nonmarital partners, (dating, boyfriend-girlfriend) or former spouses or nonmarital partners
Intimate partner violence (IPV)
A specified group of persons (e.g. health care providers) is required by law to report abuse (of a specified nature against specified persons) to a governmental agency (e.g. protective services, the police)
Mandatory reporting of abuse
Infliction of emotional/mental anguish by humiliation, coercion, and threats and/or lack of social stimulation. Examples include yelling, threats of harm, threats of withholding basic medical and/or personal care, and leaving the person alone for long periods of time.
Psychological abuse
Asking all adult patients (usually female patients) whether they have experienced IPV each time they are in the health care system no matter what their complaint
Routine, universal screening for intimate partner violence
how loud or soft a sound is
Amplitude
the length of time a note lingers
duration
an infection acquired during hospitalization
Nosocomial infection
an instrument that illuminates the internal eye structures, enabling the examiner to look through the pupil at the fundus (background) of the eye
Ophthalmoscope
An instrument that illuminates the ear canal, enabling the examiner to look at the ear canal and tympanic membrane
Otoscope
The number of vibration or cycles per second of a note
Pitch
A subjective difference in a sound due to the sound's distinctive overtones
Quality
Baldness, hair loss
Alopecia
Circular shape to skin lesion
Annular
Elevated cavity containing free fluid larger than 1 cm diameter
Bulla
skin lesions that run together
Confluent
Thick dried-out exudate left on skin when vesicles/pustules burst or dry up
Crust
Dusky blue color to skin or mucous membranes due to increased amount of unoxygenated hemoglobin
Cyanosis
Scooped out, shallow depression in skin
Erosion
intense redness of the skin due to excess blood in dilated superficial capillaries, as in fever or inflammation
Erythema
Self-inflicted abrasion on skin due to scratching
Excoriation
linear crack in skin extending into dermis
Fissure
(boil) suppurative inflammatory skin lesion due to infected hair follicle
Furuncle
skin lesion due to benign proliferation of blood vessels in the dermis
Hemangioma
target shape of skin lesion
iris
yellow color to skin, palate, and sclera due to excess bilirubin in the blood
Jaundice
hypertrophic scar, elevated beyond site of original injury
Keloid
tightly packed set of papules that thickens skin, from prolonged intense scratching
Lichenification
benign fatty tumor
lipoma
softening of tissue by soaking
Maceration
flat skin lesion with only a color change
Macule
(mole) circumscribed skin lesion due to excess melanocytes
Nevus
elevated skin lesion, >1 cm diameter
Nodule
excessively pale, whitish-pink color to lightly pigmented skin
Pallor
Palpable skin lesion of < 1 cm diameter
Papule
Skin lesion in which papules coalesce or come together
Plaque
itching
Pruritus
red-purple skin lesion due to blood in tissues from breaks in blood vessels
Purpura
elevated cavity containing thick turbid fluid
Pustule
Compact desiccated flakes of skin from shedding of dead skin cells
Scale
skin lesion due to permanently enlarged and dilated blood vessels that are visible
Telangiectasia
sloughing of necrotic inflammatory tissue that causes a deep depression in skin, extending into dermis
Ulcer
Elevated cavity containing free fluid up to 1 cm in diameter
Vesicle
Blowing, swooshing sound heard through the stethoscope over an area of abnormal blood flow
Bruit
increase in size of thyroid gland that occurs with hyperthyroidism
Goiter
enlargement of the lymph nodes due to infection, allergy or neoplasm
Lymphadenopathy
abnormally large head
Macrocephalic
abnormally small head
Microcephalic
round symmetric skull that is appropriately related to body size
Normocephalic
head tilt due to shortening or spasm of one sternomastoid muscle
Torticollis
outer fibrous rim encircling the eardrum
Annulus
congenital absence or closure of ear canal
Atresia
Yellow waxy material that lubricates and protects the ear canal
Cerumen
Connects the middle ear with the nasopharynx and allows passage of air
Eustachian Tube
inner ear structure containing the central hearing apparatus
Cochlea
superior, posterior free rim of the pinna
Helix
"anvil", middle of the 3 ossicles of the middle ear
Incus
"hammer", first of the 3 ossicles of the middle ear
Malleus
bony prominence of the skull located just behind the ear
Mastoid
Sensory organ of hearing
Organ of Corti
pain in the ear
Otalgia
inflammation of the outer ear and ear canal
Otitis externa
inflammation of the middle ear and tympanic membrance
Otitis media
discharge from the ear
Otorrhea
small, slack, superior section of tympanic membrane
Pars flaccida
thick, taut, central/inferior section of tympanic membrane
Pars tensa
Auricle or outer ear
Pinna
"stirrup", inner of the 3 ossicles of the middle ear
Stapes
ringing in the ear
Tinnitus
"eardrum", thin, translucent, oval membrane that stretches across the ear canal and separates the middle ear from the outer ear
Tympanic membrane
knob of the malleus that shows through the tympanic membrane
Umbo
a spinning, twirling sensation
Vertigo
"canker sores"--small, painful, round, ulcers in the oral mucuosa of unknown cause
Aphthous ulcers
pertaining to the cheek
Buccal
(moniliasis) white, cheesy, curdlike patch on the buccal mucuosa due to superficial fungal infection
Candidiasis
decay in the teeth
caries
indentations on surface of tonsils
crypts
red, scaling, shallow, painful fissures at corners of mouth
Cheilitis
Closure of nasal cavity due to congenital septum between nasal cavity and pharynx
Choanal atresia
nosebleed, usually from anterior septum
Epistaxis
nontender, fibrous nodule of the gum
Epulis
small, isolated, white or yellow papules on oral mucosa
Fordyce's granules
red swollen gum margins that bleed easily
Gingivitis
"cold sores", --clear vesicles with red base, which evolve into pustules, usually at lip-skin junction
Herpes simplex
small, blue-white spots with red halo over oral mucosa; early sign of measles
Koplik's spots
chalky white, thick raised patch on sides of tongue, precancerous
Leukoplakia
upper or lower dental arches out of alignment
Malocclusion
rough bumpy elevation of dorsal surface of tongue
Papillae
pair of salivary glands in the cheeks in front of the ears
Parotid glands
inflammation of the throat
Pharyngitis
soft whitish debris on teeth
Plaque
smooth, pale gray nodules in the nasal cavity due to chronic allergic rhinitis
Polyp
red swollen inflammation of nasal mucosa
Rhinitis
oral candidiasis in the newborn
Thrush
one of 3 bony projections into the nasal cavity
Turbinate
free projection hanging down from the middle of the soft palate
Uvula
Moving a body part away from an axis or the median line
Abduction
Moving a body part toward the center or toward the median line
Adduction
immobility, consolidation, and fixation of a joint because of disease, injury, surgery; most often due to chronic rheumatoid arthritis
Ankylosis
inability to perform coordinated movements
Ataxia
enclosed sac filled with viscous fluid located in joint areas of potential friction
bursa
moving the arm in a circle around the shoulder
circumduction
dry crackling sound or sensation due to grating of the ends of damaged bones
Crepitation
directed toward or located on the surface
Dorsa
flexion contractures of the fingers due to chronic hyperplasia of the palmar fascia
Dupuytren's contracture
moving the sole of the foot outward at the ankle
Eversion
straightening a limb at a joint
Extension
bending a limb at a joint
Flexion
round, cystic, nontender nodule overlying a tendon sheath or joint capsule, usually on dorsum of wrist
Ganglion
lateral or outward deviation of the great toe
Hallux valgus
moving the sole of the foot inward at the ankle
inversion
outward or convex curvature of the thoracic spine, hunchback
Kyphosis
fibrous bands running directly from one bone to another bone that strengthen the joint
Ligament
inward or concave curvature of the lumbar spine
Lordosis
center of the intervertebral disc
Nucleus pulposus
bony projection of the ulna at the elbow
Olecranon process
kneecap
Patella
surface of the sole of the foot
Plantar
turning the forearm so that the palm is down
Pronation
moving a body part forward and parallel to the ground
Protraction
extent of movement of a joint
ROM range of motion
moving a body part backward and parallel to the ground
retraction
chronic systemic inflammatory disease of joints and surrounding connective tissue
Rheumatoid arthritis
nerve pain along the course of the sciatic nerve that travels down from the back or thigh through the leg and into the foot
Sciatica
S-Shaped curvature of the thoracic spine
Scoliosis
turning the forearm so that the palm is up
Supination
(clubfoot) congenital deformity of the foot in which it is planter flexed and inverted
Talipes equinovarus
strong fibrous cord that attaches a skeletal muscle to a bone
Tendon
(wryneck) contraction of the cervical neck muscles, producing torsion of the neck
Torticollis