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21 Cards in this Set

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§ 1-106(1)/§ 1-305(a) (Revised): "Remedies to be Liberally Administered"
(a) The remedies provided by the UCC must be liberally administered to the end that the aggrieved party may be put in as good a position as if the other party had fully performed but neither consequential or special damages nor penal damages may be had except as specifically provided in the UCC or by other rule of law.
§ 2-703: Seller's Remedies in General
(Art. 2 - Sales, Part 7 - Remedies)
(1) A breach of contract by the buyer includes the buyer's wrongful rejection or wrongful attempt to revoke acceptance of goods, wrongful failure to perform a contractual obligation, failure to make payment when due, and repudiation.

(2) If the buyer is in breach of contract, the seller, to the extent provided by this Act or other law, may:
(a) withhold delivery of goods;
(b) stop delivery of the goods under § 2-705;
(c) proceed under § 2-704 w/respect to goods unidentified to the contract or unfinished;
(d) reclaim the goods under § 2-507(2) or 2-702(2);
(e) require payment directly from the buyer under § 2-325(c);
(f) cancel;
(g) resell and recover damages under § 2-706;
(h) recover damages for nonacceptance or repudiation under § 2-708(2);
(i) recover lost profits under § 2-708(2);
(j) recover the price under § 2-709;
(k) obtain specific performance under § 2-716;
(l) recover liquidated damages under § 2-718;
(m) recover damages in any manner that is reasonable under the circumstances.

(3) if the buyer becomes insolvent, the seller may:
(a) withhold delivery under § 2-702(1);
(b) stop delivery of goods under § 2-705;
(c) reclaim the goods under § 2-702(2).
§ 2-706: Seller's Resale Including Contract for Sale
(Art. 2 - Sales, Part 7 - Remedies)
(1) In an appropriate case involving breach by buyer, seller may resell goods concerned or the undelivered balance thereof. If resale made in good faith and in commercially reasonable manner, seller may recover difference b/w contract price and resale price together w/ any incidental or consequential damages allowed under § 2-710 but minus the expenses saved in consequence of the buyer's breach.

(2) Resale may be at public or private sale, as a unit or in parcels, at any time and place, and on any terms but every aspect of the sale must be commercially reasonable. The resale must be identified as referring to broken contract, but not necessary that goods be in existence or identified to contract before breach.

(3) If resale at private sale, seller must give buyer reasonable notification of intention to resell.

(4) If resale at public sale:
(a) only identified goods sold unless is recognized market for public sale of futures in goods of kind;
(b) must be made at usual place or market for public sale if available and seller ust give buyer reasonable notice of time and place (if not perishable or decline in value w/ time)'
(c) if goods aren't to be viewed by those attending sale, notification of sale must state place where goods located and provide for inspection by prospective bidders; and
(d) seller may buy.

(5) Purchaser that buys in good faith at a resale takes the goods free of any rights of original buyer even if seller fails to comply w/ one or more requirements of section.

(6) Seller isn't accountable to buyer for any profit made on resale but any excess must be accounted for.

(7) Failure of seller to resell under section does not bar seller from other remedy.
§ 2-708: Seller's Damages for Non-acceptance or Repudiation
(Art. 2 - Sales, Part 7 - Remedies)
(1) Subject to subsection (2) and § 2-723, measure of damages for non-acceptance or repudiation by the buyer = difference b/w market price at the time and place for tender and the unpaid contract price together w/ any incidental damages but less expenses saved in consequence of buyer's breach.

(2) If measure of damages provided in (1) is inadequate to put seller in as good a position as performance would have done then the measure of damages = profit (including reasonable overhead) which seller would have made from full performance by the buyer, together w/ any incidental damages provided in § 2-710, due allowance for costs reasonable incurred + due credit for payments or proceeds of resale.
§ 2-709: Action for the Price.
(Art. 2 - Sales, Part 7 - Remedies)
(1) When the buyer fails to pay the price as it becomes due the seller may recover, together with any incidental damages under the next section, the price

(a) of goods accepted or of conforming goods lost or damaged within a commercially reasonable time after risk of their loss has passed to the buyer; and

(b) of goods identified to the contract if the seller is unable after reasonable effort to resell them at a reasonable price or the circumstances reasonably indicate that such effort will be unavailing.

(2) Where the seller sues for the price he must hold for the buyer any goods which have been identified to the contract and are still in his control except that if resale becomes possible he may resell them at any time prior to the collection of the judgment. The net proceeds of any such resale must be credited to the buyer and payment of the judgment entitles him to any goods not resold.

(3) After the buyer has wrongfully rejected or revoked acceptance of the goods or has failed to make a payment due or has repudiated (Section 2-610), a seller who is held not entitled to the price under this section shall nevertheless be awarded damages for non-acceptance under the preceding section.
§ 2-710. Seller's Incidental Damages.
(Art. 2 - Sales, Part 7 - Remedies)
Incidental damages to an aggrieved seller include any commercially reasonable charges, expenses or commissions incurred in stopping delivery, in the transportation, care and custody of goods after the buyer's breach, in connection with return or resale of the goods or otherwise resulting from the breach.
§ 2-711. Buyer's Remedies in General; Buyer's Security Interest in Rejected Goods.
(Sec. 2 - Sales, Part 7 - Remedies)
1) Where the seller fails to make delivery or repudiates or the buyer rightfully rejects or justifiably revokes acceptance then with respect to any goods involved, and with respect to the whole if the breach goes to the whole contract (Section 2-612), the buyer may cancel and whether or not he has done so may in addition to recovering so much of the price as has been paid

(a) "cover" and have damages under the next section as to all the goods affected whether or not they have been identified to the contract; or

(b) recover damages for non-delivery as provided in this Article (Section 2-713).

(2) Where the seller fails to deliver or repudiates the buyer may also

(a) if the goods have been identified recover them as provided in this Article (Section 2-502); or

(b) in a proper case obtain specific performance or replevy the goods as provided in this Article (Section 2-716).

(3) On rightful rejection or justifiable revocation of acceptance a buyer has a security interest in goods in his possession or control for any payments made on their price and any expenses reasonably incurred in their inspection, receipt, transportation, care and custody and may hold such goods and resell them in like manner as an aggrieved seller (Section 2-706).
§ 2-712. "Cover"; Buyer's Procurement of Substitute Goods.
(Sec. 2 - Sales, Part 7 - Remedies)
(1) After a breach within the preceding section the buyer may "cover" by making in good faith and without unreasonable delay any reasonable purchase of or contract to purchase goods in substitution for those due from the seller.

(2) The buyer may recover from the seller as damages the difference between the cost of cover and the contract price together with any incidental or consequential damages as hereinafter defined (Section 2-715), but less expenses saved in consequence of the seller's breach.

(3) Failure of the buyer to effect cover within this section does not bar him from any other remedy.
§ 2-713. Buyer's Damages for Non-delivery or Repudiation.
(Sec. 2 - Sales, Part 7 - Remedies)
(1) Subject to the provisions of this Article with respect to proof of market price (Section 2-723), the measure of damages for non-delivery or repudiation by the seller is the difference between the market price at the time when the buyer learned of the breach and the contract price together with any incidental and consequential damages provided in this Article (Section 2-715), but less expenses saved in consequence of the seller's breach.

(2) Market price is to be determined as of the place for tender or, in cases of rejection after arrival or revocation of acceptance, as of the place of arrival.
§ 2-715. Buyer's Incidental and Consequential Damages.
(Sec. 2 - Sales, Part 7 - Remedies)
(1) Incidental damages resulting from the seller's breach include expenses reasonably incurred in inspection, receipt, transportation and care and custody of goods rightfully rejected, any commercially reasonable charges, expenses or commissions in connection with effecting cover and any other reasonable expense incident to the delay or other breach.

(2) Consequential damages resulting from the seller's breach include

(a) any loss resulting from general or particular requirements and needs of which the seller at the time of contracting had reason to know and which could not reasonably be prevented by cover or otherwise; and

(b) injury to person or property proximately resulting from any breach of warranty.
§ 2-716. Buyer's Right to Specific Performance or Replevin.
(Art. 2 - Sales, Part 7 - Remedies)
(1) Specific performance may be decreed where the goods are unique or in other proper circumstances.

(2) The decree for specific performance may include such terms and conditions as to payment of the price, damages, or other relief as the court may deem just.

(3) The buyer has a right of replevin for goods identified to the contract if after reasonable effort he is unable to effect cover for such goods or the circumstances reasonably indicate that such effort will be unavailing or if the goods have been shipped under reservation and satisfaction of the security interest in them has been made or tendered.
§ 2-714. Buyer's Damages for Breach in Regard to Accepted Goods.
(Art. 2 - Sales, Part 7 - Remedies)
(1) Where the buyer has accepted goods and given notification (subsection (3) of Section 2-607) he may recover as damages for any non-conformity of tender the loss resulting in the ordinary course of events from the seller's breach as determined in any manner which is reasonable.

(2) The measure of damages for breach of warranty is the difference at the time and place of acceptance between the value of the goods accepted and the value they would have had if they had been as warranted, unless special circumstances show proximate damages of a different amount.

(3) In a proper case any incidental and consequential damages under the next section may also be recovered.
§ 2-204: Formation in General
(Art. 2 - Sales, Part 2 - Form, Formation and Readjustment of Contract)
(1) A contract for sale of goods may be made in any manner sufficient to show agreement, including conduct by both parties which recognizes the existence of such a contract.

(2) An agreement sufficient to constitute a contract for sale may be found even though the moment of its making is undetermined.

(3) Even though one or more terms are left open a contract for sale does not fail for indefiniteness if the parties have intended to make a contract and there is a reasonably certain basis for giving an appropriate remedy.
§ 2-205: Firm Offers.
(Art. 2 - Sales, Part 2 - Form, Formation and Readjustment of Contract)
An offer by a merchant to buy or sell goods in a signed writing which by its terms gives assurance that it will be held open is not revocable, for lack of consideration, during the time stated or if no time is stated for a reasonable time, but in no event may such period of irrevocability exceed three months; but any such term of assurance on a form supplied by the offeree must be separately signed by the offeror.
§ 2-206: Offer and Acceptance in Formation of Contract
(Art. 2 - Sales, Part 2 - Form, Formation and Readjustment of Contract)
(1) Unless otherwise unambiguously indicated by the language or circumstances

(a) an offer to make a contract shall be construed as inviting acceptance in any manner and by any medium reasonable in the circumstances;

(b) an order or other offer to buy goods for prompt or current shipment shall be construed as inviting acceptance either by a prompt promise to ship or by the prompt or current shipment of conforming or non-conforming goods, but such a shipment of non-conforming goods does not constitute an acceptance if the seller seasonably notifies the buyer that the shipment is offered only as an accommodation to the buyer.

(2) Where the beginning of a requested performance is a reasonable mode of acceptance an offeror who is not notified of acceptance within a reasonable time may treat the offer as having lapsed before acceptance.
§ 2-207: Additional Terms in Acceptance or Confirmation.
(Art. 2 - Sales, Part 2 - Form, Formation and Readjustment of Contract)
(1) A definite and seasonable expression of acceptance or a written confirmation which is sent within a reasonable time operates as an acceptance even though it states terms additional to or different from those offered or agreed upon, unless acceptance is expressly made conditional on assent to the additional or different terms.

(2) The additional terms are to be construed as proposals for addition to the contract. Between merchants such terms become part of the contract unless:

(a) the offer expressly limits acceptance to the terms of the offer;

(b) they materially alter it; or

(c) notification of objection to them has already been given or is given within a reasonable time after notice of them is received.

(3) Conduct by both parties which recognizes the existence of a contract is sufficient to establish a contract for sale although the writings of the parties do not otherwise establish a contract. In such case the terms of the particular contract consist of those terms on which the writings of the parties agree, together with any supplementary terms incorporated under any other provisions of this Act.
§ 2-305: Open Price Term
(Art. 2 - Sales, Part 3 - General Obligation and Construction of Contract)
(1) The parties if they so intend can conclude a contract for sale even though the price is not settled. In such a case the price is a reasonable price at the time for delivery if

(a) nothing is said as to price; or

(b) the price is left to be agreed by the parties and they fail to agree; or

(c) the price is to be fixed in terms of some agreed market or other standard as set or recorded by a third person or agency and it is not so set or recorded.

(2) A price to be fixed by the seller or by the buyer means a price for him to fix in good faith.

(3) When a price left to be fixed otherwise than by agreement of the parties fails to be fixed through fault of one party the other may at his option treat the contract as canceled or himself fix a reasonable price.

(4) Where, however, the parties intend not to be bound unless the price be fixed or agreed and it is not fixed or agreed there is no contract. In such a case the buyer must return any goods already received or if unable so to do must pay their reasonable value at the time of delivery and the seller must return any portion of the price paid on account.
§ 2-313: Express Warranties by Affirmation, Promise, Description, Sample
(Art. 2 - Sales, Part 3 - General Obligation and Construction of Contract)
(1) Express warranties by the seller are created as follows:

(a) Any affirmation of fact or promise made by the seller to the buyer which relates to the goods and becomes part of the basis of the bargain creates an express warranty that the goods shall conform to the affirmation or promise.

(b) Any description of the goods which is made part of the basis of the bargain creates an express warranty that the goods shall conform to the description.

(c) Any sample or model which is made part of the basis of the bargain creates an express warranty that the whole of the goods shall conform to the sample or model.

(2) It is not necessary to the creation of an express warranty that the seller use formal words such as "warrant" or "guarantee" or that he have a specific intention to make a warranty, but an affirmation merely of the value of the goods or a statement purporting to be merely the seller's opinion or commendation of the goods does not create a warranty.
§ 2-314: Implied Warranty: Merchantability; Usage of Trade
(Art. 2 - Sales, Part 3 - General Obligation and Construction of Contract)
(1) Unless excluded or modified (Section 2-316), a warranty that the goods shall be merchantable is implied in a contract for their sale if the seller is a merchant with respect to goods of that kind. Under this section the serving for value of food or drink to be consumed either on the premises or elsewhere is a sale.

(2) Goods to be merchantable must be at least such as

(a) pass without objection in the trade under the contract description; and

(b) in the case of fungible goods, are of fair average quality within the description; and

(c) are fit for the ordinary purposes for which such goods are used; and

(d) run, within the variations permitted by the agreement, of even kind, quality and quantity within each unit and among all units involved; and

(e) are adequately contained, packaged, and labeled as the agreement may require; and

(f) conform to the promise or affirmations of fact made on the container or label if any.

(3) Unless excluded or modified (Section 2-316) other implied warranties may arise from course of dealing or usage of trade.
U.C.C. § 2-315

§ 2-315. Implied Warranty: Fitness for Particular Purpose
(Art. 2 - Sales, Part 3 - General Obligation and Construction of Contract)
Where the seller at the time of contracting has reason to know any particular purpose for which the goods are required and that the buyer is relying on the seller's skill or judgment to select or furnish suitable goods, there is unless excluded or modified under the next section an implied warranty that the goods shall be fit for such purpose.
§ 2-316: Exclusion or Modification of Warranties
(Art. 2 - Sales, Part 3 - General Obligations and Construction of Contract)
(1) Words or conduct relevant to the creation of an express warranty and words or conduct tending to negate or limit warranty shall be construed wherever reasonable as consistent with each other; but subject to the provisions of this Article on parol or extrinsic evidence (Section 2-202) negation or limitation is inoperative to the extent that such construction is unreasonable.

(2) Subject to subsection (3), to exclude or modify the implied warranty of merchantability or any part of it the language must mention merchantability and in case of a writing must be conspicuous, and to exclude or modify any implied warranty of fitness the exclusion must be by a writing and conspicuous. Language to exclude all implied warranties of fitness is sufficient if it states, for example, that "There are no warranties which extend beyond the description on the face hereof."

(3) Notwithstanding subsection (2)

(a) unless the circumstances indicate otherwise, all implied warranties are excluded by expressions like "as is", "with all faults" or other language which in common understanding calls the buyer's attention to the exclusion of warranties and makes plain that there is no implied warranty; and

(b) when the buyer before entering into the contract has examined the goods or the sample or model as fully as he desired or has refused to examine the goods there is no implied warranty with regard to defects which an examination ought in the circumstances to have revealed to him; and

(c) an implied warranty can also be excluded or modified by course of dealing or course of performance or usage of trade.

(4) Remedies for breach of warranty can be limited in accordance with the provisions of this Article on liquidation or limitation of damages and on contractual modification of remedy (Sections 2-718 and 2-719).