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158 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The cerebellum (is/is not) involved in conscious perception.
The cerebellum IS NOT involved in conscious perception.
The anterior lobe of the cerebellum lies _______ to the primary fissure.
The posterior lobe is the __1__ and ____2____ part of the cerebellum.
1) largest

2) phylogenetically newest
The flocculonodular lobe is ____1____ part of the cerebellum and is most closely related to the ____2____.
1) phylogenetically the oldest

2) vestibular system
The output cell of the cerebellar cortex.
Purkinje Cell
Purkinje cells are ______ to their target nuclei.
Climbing fibers originate where?
Inferior Olivary Nuclei
Functional term for the flocculonodular lobe.
Functional Divisions of the Cerebellum
1) Vestibulocerebellum

2) Spinocerebellum

3) Cerebrocerebellum
This division of the cerebellum is concerned with influencing eye movement and controlling posture and equilibrium via connections with the vestibular system.
Consists of vermal and paravermal areas of the cerebellar cortex which send projections primarily to the fastigial (vermis) and interposed nuclei.
This region receives extensive input from the spinal cord and is concerned with control of proximal limb movements via descending spinal pathways. The vermal area also exerts control over muscles involved in speech production.
Consists of the lateral cerebellar hemispheres which send projections primarily to the dentate nuclei.
This system has the most extensive thalamocortical projections and is concerned with the coordination of distal limb movements via connections with corticospinal and rubrospinal tracts.
Most common type of cerebellar lesion seen in humans and affects primarily skilled voluntary movements.
Lateral Cerebellar Syndrome
Inability to gauge distances
inability to perform rapidly alternating movements of the extremities
inability to perform compound movements
decomposition of movement
tremor with movement; not present at rest
intention tremor
range, direction, and force of muscle contractions are inappropriate
symptoms of asynergia
- dysmetria

- dysdiadochokinesia

- decomposition of movement
Symptoms of Lateral Cerebellar Syndrome (lesion of the lateral cerebellar hemisphere or dentate nucleus)
Symptoms are IPSILATERAL

1) Hypotonia

2) Asynergia
- dysmetria
- dysdiadochokinesia
- decomposition of movement

3) Intention tremor
Lesion of the anterior lobe of the cerebellum
Anterior Midline Cerebellar Syndrome
This type pathology is generally seen secondary to chronic alcohol abuse.
Anterior Midline Cerebellar Syndrome (lesion to anterior lobe)
Symptoms of spinocerebellar damage are:
1) Ataxia
- irregular muscle contractions involving the axial & proximal extremity muscles; evident during stance and gait

2) Dysarthria
- incoordination of speech
Most commonly due to tumors of young children known as medulloblastomas.
lesion to flocculonodular lobe
Medulloblastomas arise in the roof of the _____
4th ventricle
Lesion to the flocculonodular lobe result in:
1) Nystagmus
- at rest

2) Truncal ataxia
- seen primarily during upright activities; disappears when lying down

3) Titubation
- oscillations of head or trunk
The ______ is filled with melanin (black pigment); absorbs light not captured by retina; supplies metabolic support to neural retina.
Layer I - Pigment Epithelium
Rods and cones are part of what layer?
Layer II
Visual pigment for rods and cones?
Rods - rhodopsin

Cones - cone opsin
Respond to low intensities of illuminatin and subserve twilight and night vision.
When only rods are activated, we cannot see ________.
Rods contain __1__ visual pigment and are __2__ sensitive than cones.
1) more

2) more
Total loss of rods produces _______.
Night blindness
Have a higher threshold of excitability and are stimulated by light of relatively high intensity.
Responsible for sharp vision and for color discrimination in adequate illumination.
Responsible for day vision
Responsible for night vision
Loss of cones causes ______.
legal blindness
The ganglion cell layer is layer _____.
Layers of the Retina we discussed.
Layer I - Pigment Epithelium

Layer II - Rods and Cones

Layer VIII - Ganglion Cell Layer

Layer IX - Nerve Fiber Layer
Output cells of the retina can be found in what layer?
Layer VIII - Ganglion Cell Layer
Location where axons of ganglion cells, which are arranged in fine radiating bundles and run parallel to the retinal surface, converge to form the optic nerve.
Optic Disk
The optic disk is also called the ______. Why?
- Blind Spot

Why? - there are no photoreceptors or ganglion cells present at the optic disk
The outer portion of the retina
Retinal Pigment Epithelium
The inner portion of the retina
Neural Retina
The inner and outer portions of the retina are not strongly joined so sometimes they separate resulting in ______.
Retinal detachment
Circular portion of retina which contains cells with yellow pigment
Macula Lutea
At the center of the Macula Lutea is the _____.
Depression in the center of the macula.
The fovea centralis only contains ______.
The fovea is directly in line with the __1___ and constitutes the ____2_____ and most ____3_____.
1) visual axis

2) point of sharpest vision

3) acute color discrimination
The optic nerves enter the cranial cavity via ______
Optic foramina
The uniting of optic nerves just anterior to the infundibulum
optic chiasm
The part beyond the optic chiasm.
Optic tracts
Most of the fibers of the optic tract terminate in the ______________.
Lateral Geniculate Body of the Thalamus
Some fibers of the optic tract continue to the ___1___, and to the ___2___.
1) Brachium of the superior colliculus

2) pretectal area
The pretectal area is involved in the _________
Pupillary light reflex
The LGB gives rise to the _______
Geniculocalcarine Tract
This forms the last relay of the visual path.
Geniculocalcarine Tract
Fibers of the geniculocalcarine tract pass through the internal capsule and form the _______
optic radiation
Fibers of the optic radiation terminate on both sides of the calcarine sulcus in the _________
occipital lobe (Brodmann's Area 17)
Some of the fibers of the optic radiation turn forward and downward into temporal lobe (_______) on their way to the occipital lobe.
Meyer's Loop
Primary visual cortex = _______
Primary visual cortex = striate cortex
Above calcarine sulcus
below calcarine sulcus
lingual gyrus
Light from the upper half of the visual field falls on the _________ of the retina.
Inferior half
Light from the _______ of the visual field falls on the inferior half of the retina.
upper half
Light from the lower half of the visual field falls on the _______ of the retina.
superior half
Light from the ______ of the visual field falls on the superior half of the retina.
lower half
Light from the temporal half of the visual field falls on the _____ of the retina.
Nasal half
Light from the nasal half of the visual field falls on the ______ of the retina.
Temporal half
Pathways of Pupillary Reflex
Light --> Retinal Ganglion Cells --> Optic Nerve --> Optic Tract --> Brachium of Superior Colliculus --> Pretectal Area --> Edinger-Westphal Nucleus --> Ciliary Ganglion --> Constrictor Pupillae M. --> Pupillary Constriction
Occurs when gaze is shifted from a distant object to a near one.
Accommodation-convergence Reaction
Pathway of Accomodation-Convergence Reaction
Retinal Impulse --> Visual Cortex --> Superior Colliculus and Pretectal Region --> Oculomotor and Edinger-Westphal --> Ciliary Ganglion
Pupils are small and do not react to light but react to accomodation.
Argyll-Robertson Pupil
When visual defects are restricted to a single visual field
when visual defects involve parts of both visual fields
Caused by lesions on one side anywhere posterior to the optic chiasm (ie. optic tract, LGB, optic radiations, visual cortex).
Homonymous defects
Complete destruction of anything posterior to the optic chiasm results in a loss of the whole opposite field of vision called
homonymous hemianopsia
Injury of one optic nerve results in....
blindness in corresponding eye with loss of pupillary light reflex. Pupil will however, contract consensually to light entering contralateral eyej.
Temporal lobe lesions may cause visual defects due to ____1___, these are ___2____.
1) Meyer's loop

2) Homonymous Superior Quadrantanopias
Parietal lobe lesions affect __1__ and result in __2___
1) Superior Retinal Fibers

2) Homonymous Inferior Quadrantanopias
Lesions of the optic chiasm cause ________.
Heteronymous defects
Most common heteronymous defect is _______
bitemporal hemianopsia
Due to lesions involving the crossing fibers from the nasal portions of the retina - lose both temporal fields of vision
bitemporal hemianopsia
Cerebral cortex has 6 layers. what are they
I) Molecular Layer

II) External Granule Layer - contains closely packed granule cells

III) External Pyramidal Layer - contains small pyramidal cells which send axons to other cortical areas (association fibers) or to the opposite hemisphere (commissural fibers)

IV) Internal Granule Layer - closely packed granule cells

V) Internal Pyramidal Layer - medium and large pyramidal cells (beta cells) with axons running to other brain regions (brain stem, spinal cord)

VI) Multiform Layer
Inputs to cortex from extracortical areas terminate mostly in layers ____ and ____.
III - External Pyramidal Layer

IV - Internal Granule Layer
Association and commissural efferents arise from layer ____.
III - External Pyramidal Layer
Projection (corticofugal) efferents arise from layer ____.
V - Internal Pyramidal Layer
Corticothalamic cells are associated with what layer?
VI - Multiform Layer
3 Regions of the Cortex that are considered to be primary sensory areas.
1) Primary Somesthetic Cortex (Areas 3,1,2)

2) Primary Visual Cortex or Striate Cortex (Area 17)

3) Primary Auditory Center (Areas 41 and 42)
This area is on the post central gyrus. It receives thalamic projections from VPM and VPL carrying information from dorsal column/medial lemniscus system, spinothalamic pathways, and trigeminothalamic tracts.
Primary Somesthetic Cortex (Areas 3,1,2)
This area of the cortex is along the lips of the calcarine sulcus and receives thalamic projections from LGB via geniculocalcarine tract.
Primary Visual Cortex or Striate Cortex (Area 17)
Area 17
Primary Visual Cortex or Striate Cortex
Areas 3,1,2
Primary Somesthetic Cortex
Areas 41 and 42
Primary Auditory Center
Transverse temporal gyri receives thalamic projections from MGB
Primary Auditory Center (Areas 41 and 42)
3 Motor Areas of the Cerebral Cortex
1) Primary Motor Area (Area 4)

2) Premotor Area (Area 6)

3) Supplementary Motor Area (Area 6)
Area 4
Primary Motor Area
Area 6
Premotor Area


Supplementary Motor Area
Precentral gyrus; voluntary motor activity; command to execute
Primary Motor Area (Area 4)
Rostral to Primary Motor Area (MI) on lateral aspect of hemisphere; dense connections with MI
Premotor Area (PMA) (Area 6)
Primary Motor Area
Premotor Area
Supplementary Motor Area
Primary Somesthetic Cortex
Located rostral to MI on medial aspect of hemisphere
Supplementary Motor Area (SMA) (Area 6)
The premotor cortex is made up of:
1) Premotor Area

2) Supplementary Motor Area
The premotor cortex is involved with ____1_____ and with ___2____.
1) Preparation for movement

2) postural sets
Center for voluntary movements of eyes, independent of visual stimuli
Frontal Eye Fields (area 8)
Areas of the cortex in which sensory information is interpreted, analyzed and associated with memory.
Areas 5 and 7 (Posterior Parietal Cortex)
Involved in the integration of sensory information with movement.
Areas 5 and 7
Cortex is involved in production of _________ movement.
3 Processes involved in voluntary movement
1) Identification and localization of the target

2) Plan of action

3) execution of the movement
Area associated with Identification and localization of target
Posterior Parietal Cortex (areas 5 and 7)
Area associated with plan of action
Supplementary Motor Area
Area associated with execution of movement
Primary Motor Area (MI)
Inability to carry out complex motor patterns.
Lesions of post parietal or premotor cortex can lead to ______

- inability to carry out complex motor patterns
Left hemisphere specializes in:
- Language functions

- Primary controller of logic and analytic functions
Right hemisphere specializes in:
- musical skills

- recognition of faces

- aspects of emotion and spatial relationships
2 Areas for Speech
1) Broca's Area

2) Wernicke's Area
Lies in opercular and triangular parts of inferior frontal gyrus; adjacent to facial areas of primary motor cortex; so called motor speech area; contains motor programs for generation of speech.
Broca's Area
located in posterior part of superior temporal gyrus; mechanisms for comprehension of language
Wernicke's Area
Fiber bundle that runs from temporal lobe through lower parietal lobe and into frontal lobe.

- joins Broca's and Wernicke's areas
Arcuate Fasciculus
Lesion to primary sensory cortex
sensory loss on contralateral side
lesion to auditory complex
partial deafness, greater on contralateral side
lesion to primary motor cortex
limb paralysis
lesion to broca's area
Expressive Aphasia
- great difficulty producing spoken (and usually written) language, good comprehension of spoke and written language
lesion to wernicke's area
Receptive Aphasia
- speaks rapidly but may omit or substitute words or just produce meaningless ounds. Poor comprehension of language; usually accompanied by alexia (inability to read) and agraphia (inability to write). Mild forms consist of problems with word substitution
lesion to arcuate fasciculus
Conduction Aphasia
- disconnects wernicke's from broca's areas; good comprehension but poor repitition of spoken language; language output often meaningless
lesion to broca's, wernicke's, and arcuate fasciculus.
Global Aphasia
- loss of all language functions
Left parietal lobe lesion
speech problems
right parietal lobe lesion
spatial orientation problems and unilateral neglect
Inability to recognize objects via a particular sensation, even though sensation is intact.
lesion to premotor and supplementary motor areas lead to _____
- inability to perform action in absence of motor deficit
Caused by plaque accumulation; may be preceded by TIA; often occuring during sleep.
dislodged clot that blocks circulation; rapid onset of symptoms; more common with activity
2 Types of Ischemia
1) Thrombus

2) Embolus
bleeding from vessel(s); often secondary to HTN; sudden onset
Supplies most of lateral cerebral cortex including
- frontal lobe
- parietal lobe
- temporal lobe
- occipital lobe
Middle Cerebral Artery
Supply posterior limb of IC, putamen, part of GP, and body of Caudate.
Lenticulostriate Arteries

- these are penetrating branches of the MCA
Infarction in territory of ______ causes most frequently encountered stroke syndrome.
Middle Cerebral Artery
Signs and symptoms of a stroke to the MCA
- contralateral weakness

- sensory loss

- homonymous hemianopsia

- depending on hemisphere involved, either language disturbance or impaired spatial peception
stroke in left hemisphere
- language disturbance

- apraxia
stroke in right hemisphere
- spatial disturbance

- unilateral neglect
Infarcts (of lenticulostriate aa) in pyramidal tract area of IC causes pure _______
hemiparesis (little or no sensory loss, aphasia, or visual problems)
Infarcts at the VPL thalamus cause
Pure sensory loss (little or no loss of motor, speech, visual, etc)
Anterior Cerebral Artery supplies:
- inferior frontal lobe

- medial surface of frontal and parietal lobes

- anterior corpus callosum
Infarction of the Anterior cerebral artery causes
Weakness and sensory loss affecting mainly distal contralateral leg
Posterior cerebral artery supplies
- inferior temporal lobe

- medial occipital lobe

- posterior corpus callosum
Middle cerebral artery supplies
- most of lateral cortex
- including:
- frontal
- parietal
- temporal
- occipital
Unilateral lesion of PCA
- contralateral homonymous hemianopsia

- contralateral sensory loss
Bilateral lesion of PCA
- cortical blindness

- may also have anterograde amnesia (if temporal lobe is involved)
If lesion of PCA is on left
- patient may have alexia WITHOUT agraphia
- this is due to disconnection of left language area with right visual hemisphere
Order of the Central Visual Pathway
1) Optic Nerves
2) Optic Chiasm
3) Optic Tracts
4) LGB or Brachium of Superior Colliculus & Pretectal Area
5) Geniculocalcarine Tract
6) Optic Radiation
7) Occipital Lobe (Area 17) or Meyer's Loop then Area 17