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47 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the 3 classes of worms
cestodes (flatworms/tapeworms)
nematodes (roundworms)
trematodes (flukes)
What are 4 classes of protozoa
amoeba
ciliates
flagellates
sporozoans
What are the motility mechanisms for the 4 types of protozoa
amoeba- pseudopods
ciliates- cilia
flagellates- flagella
sporozoans- no motion
Describe the shape of nematodes
round, unsegmented bilateral symmetry

female bigger than male
Describe the shape of cestodes
tapeworms, flat

scolex for attachement, segments (proglottids), hermaphroditic segments
Describe the shape of trematodes
flukes, dosoventrally flattened
hermaphroditic (females live within males)
What form of malaria do mosquitos ingest? inject?
ingest gametocytes

inject sporozoites
which malaria types have a dormant stage in the liver.

what are these dormant particles called
vivax/ovale

hypnozoites
what are the malaria forms that mature in RBCs called?

in liver cells?

in mosquitos?
liver- sporozoites -->schizonts

RBC- trophozoites--->shizont

mosquito- gametocytes-->oocyst-->sporozoites
What are the fever cycles of

vivax/ovale
malaria
falciparum
vivax/ovale : 2 days
malaria : 72 hours
falciparum: continuous
what special treatments do you need for vivax/ovale
primaquine for hypnozoites
What is host part the life cycle of ascaris?
intestinal nematode:

ingest --> gut -->lungs
what form of giardia is usually ingested? where can it survive?
usually cyst form, very hardy
what normally causes acute travellers diarrhea?

Chronic?
acute- bacterial and viral

chronic- entamoeba, giardia
What % of diarrhea is caused by helminths
0%!
Traveller's fever:

how can you differentiate between typhoid, malaria, hep and dengue
typhoid- long term, usually with gi symptoms

malaria- cyclic fever

hep- do serology testing

dengue- maculopapular rash
in terms of types of RBCs infected, plasmodium species affect...
vivax/ovale -young RBC
falciparum- all RBC (severe)
malriae- old RBC
which malaria can cause cerebral malaria? And how does it do this?
falciparum, RBCs stick to each other
infection with which malaria is a medical emergency
falciparum
Which of the parasites we know are sporozoites?
plasmodium
toxo
cryptosporidium
Which of the parasites we know are flagellates
giardia
which of the parasites we know are amoeba
entamoeba
How is toxoplasa transmitted
cat feces (cysts)
meat (dormant invasive form)
What are the symptoms of toxo in immunocompetent host
asymptomatic -> mono like symptoms. Lies dormant in tissues
What are symptoms in congenital toxo
only if acute infection in mother (pregnant ladies should not change cat litter).

Chorioretinitis, blindness, seizures, mental problems
What are symptoms of toxo in immunocompromised hosts
dormant cysts rupture -->CNS lesions, pneumonia, chorioretinitis

most common cause of encephalitis in HIV patients
What are the clinical syndromes associated with entamoeba histolytica
usually carrier, asymptomatic

diarrhea (bloody, dysentary) in some (intestinal amoebiasis)
amoebic abscess in liver (invasive amoebiasis)
What kind of diarrhea do you get from cryptosporidium parvum? in AIDS?
watery, self limited

main cause of watery diarrhea in AIDS
What is the only cestode we have learned?

How do you get it?

What diseases does it cause?
Taenia solium (cisticercosis)

Eat cysts (fecal contamination) -->tissue infection (blindness, neurological)

eat meat (larvae) intestinal infection, malnutrition, discomfort
What medication do we use to treat all worm infections
albendazole (medentazole)
How is hookworm transmitted
necator americanus (but not in US!)
larva penetrate skin (barefoot walking), to gut, to lungs
What are the clinical syndromes of necator americanus
anemia, itching at site of infection, cough with bloody sputum, diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss
What are the clinical syndromes of ascaris, and their relative frequencies
1. asymptomatic in most
2. pneumonia
3. malnutrition (children)
Where can strongyloides be found (other than tropics and subtropics)
SE USA
What is ivermectin used to treat
nematodes: strongyloides *autoinfection
What is praziquantel usd to treat
cestodes nematodes
What can metronidazole treat
entamoeba histo, giardia, C diff
What medication is used for P vivax and ovale
primaquine
which worm can autoinfect
strongyloides
which worms do you get from penetration of unbroken skin
strongyloides, necator
which worms do you get from f/o contamination
ascaris
necator is also known as...
hookworm
taenia solium is also known as...
pork tapeworm
what is praziquantel used for
cestodes (taenia solium)
what is ivermectin used for
ascaris, strongyloides (Tissue infections)
what is metronidazole used for
giardia, entamoeba, diff
what are the main clinical presentations of ascaris
asymptomatic (most)
pneumonia (some)
malnutrition (children)