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10 Cards in this Set

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What is a scientific approach to understanding childhood?
A scientific approach seeks to use science to establish objective facts about theories used to understand childhood. It consists of:
* devising theories
* making preditions from those theories
* and testing the predictions through experiments, observations and surveys
What is Piaget's theory of cognitive development?
Piaget used scientific methods to test his theory that children did not gradually get better and better in their thinking capabiliites but went through distinct stages
Name an experiment Piaget did?
The conservation of liquid test- this involved two identical beakers of water A and B. Beaker A is poured into beaker C (taller and thinner) The children are then asked which beaker has more water B or C.
What is Kohlberg's theory of moral development?
Kohlberg believed that children went through stages of moral thinking capacities
What are the stages of Kohlbergs theory of moral development?
Stage 1 wrong things are those that are punished
Stage 2 good and bad are about satifying your own needs
Stage 3 being good is looking after those you care about
stage 4 being good is about obeying the law
stage 5 being good is about forstering the welfare welbeing of others
stage 6 being good is defined by your own conscience
Name two critisisms of kohlberg's theory of moral development?
1) Kohlberg held all moral judgements as universal

2) Kohlberg viewed that the Western philosophy of moral values as a benchmark against which childrens moral development can be judged
What is a social constructionist approach to understanding childhood?
A social constructionist approach to childhoodtakes into consideration the effects of culture, history and social processes on the way people make sence of the world and the way people act.

The concept of 'child' and 'children' exsist only because people brought them into being
Name and explain two discourses withing the social constructionist approach to understanding childhood?
1) The romantic discourse of childhood sees children as inherently good doing bad things only if they have been damaged in some way

2) The puritan discourse of childhood sees children as inherently bad doing terrible things because they are wicked and should be punished
What is an applied approach to understanding childhood?
An applied approach to understanding childhood can draw from both a scientific approach and a social constructionist approach when concerned with areas of social policy practice and the law.
Name and explain the two models used within the applied approach when considering punishing or rehabilitating children who commit crimes?
1) The welfare model- this puts the child's welfare first and believes that if they have done something wrong it is because they have been mistreated or deprived in some way

2) The justice model believes that once children can be held partially responsible for their misdoings they should be treated as criminals and punished.