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58 Cards in this Set

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london dispersion force or induced-dipole-induced dipole interaxn
-resultant transient dipole moment can induce dipole in an adjacent molecule
-weak electrostatic forces
-resp for liquefaction of nonpolar gases
dipole-induced dipole interaxn or
debye induction force
transient dipole induced by a permanent dipole

strongest interaxn
keesom orientation forces
or
permanent dipole interaxn
+ debye + london forces = Van der Waals forces

- resp for more substantive structure & molecular oredering found in liq
hydrogen bonds
small
large electrostatic field
approach high electronegative atoms -> interact electrostatically => form H bond
electronegative atoms
Fl
O
N
CL
S
ion dipole interaxn
or
dipole induction by anion
affect molecular aggregation or ordering in a system
state of ideal gas
PV = nRT
molar gas constant
0.0825L atm/mole deg
anesthetic gases
nitrous oxide
halothane
compressed gases
oxygen
nitrous oxide
nitrogen
carbon dioxide
liquefable gases
halohydrocarbons
hydrocarbons
used as propellants in aerosol prdts
ethylene oxide
gas used to sterilize or disinfect heat labile objects
increase temp
increast heat content or enthalpy
melting
solid -> liq
vaporization
liq-gas
volatile liq
halothane
ether
methoxyflurane

used as inhalation anes
amyl nitrite
volatile liq inhaled ofr its vasodilating eff in acute angina
sublimation
solid -> gas without liq
ex of sublimation
camphor
iodide
freeze drying or lyophilization
form of vacuum drying

water removed by sublimation fr frozen prdt

useful for drying aquous solns or dispersion of heat or oxygen sensitive drugs or biologicals (protein, peptide)
deposition
reverse process -> vapor to liq

ex: sulfur
colloidal silicon dioxide
at room temp
intermolecular in gases are nonexistent
surface free energy
work required to inc the surface area A of the liq by 1 area unit (milliNewtons)
interfacial tension
free energy

work req to expant the interfacial area
rate of shear
deformation of liq w/ time
coefficient of viscosity
indicates resistance to flow of adjacent layers of fluid
fluidity
reciprocal of viscosity
dynes
units of viscosity in CGS sys
viscosity of water @ 20 degree C
0.01 poise

1 centipoise
newtonian
liquids consist of simple molecules and dilute dispersions
non newtonian
-do not obey newtons equation of flow
-exhibit shear dependent or time dependent viscosity
ex of non newtonian
heterogenous liq and solids
shear thickening or dilatancy
inc in apparent viscosity

shear dependent viscosity
ex of shear thickening
susp that have inc solids content of small deflocculated particles
shear thinning or pseudoplasticity
dec in apparent viscosity
inc rate shear
ex of shear thinning
polymer
macromolecule soln
plastic or bingham body
flocculated particles in conc susp that show no apparent response to low level stress
flow
begins only after a lmting yield stress/ valve is exceeded
thixotropic
-display shear thinning behavior
- do not immediately recover their higher apparent
viscosity
when the rate of shear is lowered
-structural recovery is relatively slow compared w/ structural breakdown
thixotrophy
occurs w/ heterogenous sys that involve a 3 dimentsional structure or network
thixotropy @ rest
rigid consistency
thixotrophy under shear
structure breaks down and fluidity inc (gel-sol transformation)
negative thixotropy or antithixotropy
-apparent viscosity of sys continues to inc with continued application of shear up to some equilibrium value @ a given shear rate
-displays sol-gel transformation
-continued shear inc frequency of particle/macromolecule interaxs -> inc structure in the sys
crystalline solids
fixed molecular order
distinct melting pt
anisotropicity
anisotropicity
properties are not the same as all directions escept cubic crystals
amorphous solids
randomly arranges molecules nondistinct melting pt's
isotropicity
prop are the same all directions
polymorphism
condition wherein subs can exist in more than 1 crystalline form
polymorphs
diff molecular arrangements
diff crystal lattice structure
ex of drug class of polymorphic behavior
steroids
faaty (triglyceride)excipients
fatty (triglyceride) excipients
theobroma oil
cocoa butter
latent chg of fusion
when 1 g solid is heated and melts => heat absorbed
triple pt
water = 0.01 deg C and 6.04.10 atm
all 3 phases exist in equilibrium - 56.558 deg c
critical pt
no distinction between liq and gas phase
supercritical fluids
exist above critical pt

ex CO2 - 30.98 deg c and 73.8 atm
critical point
no distinction between liq and gas phase
supercritical fluids
exist above critical pt

ex: CO2-30.98 degree c and 73.8atm