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16 Cards in this Set

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The ability of dominant cultures/classes to exercise social and cultural leadership, not by coercion or force but rather by persuasion and creativity (e.g., advertising); a process of continual negotiation and re-negotiation by which dominant interests seem to become “natural” and taken for granted as the norm; the whole body of practices and expectations by which a given social order holds together and acquires its legitimacy; a cultural process that characterizes the uncertainties and contradictions associated with center-margin relations in a society. ...assuming that power is always contested, and dominance has to be continually renegotiated (Kaiser).
hegemony
the production of the meaning of concepts or ideas in the media or in people’s minds; these enable individuals to “call up in the mind” certain kinds of descriptions, portrayals, or imagined ways of being. In the realm of style and fashion, such images come from media and industry advertisements. However, they also emerge from the process of getting dressed in everyday life (Kaiser).
representation
The condition or process of exerting voice or control, including power or resistance to power; the process of “being heard” or becoming visible (Kaiser).
agency
acknowledgment to the source, as in the case of the apparel industry’s co-opting of subcultural styles (Kaiser).
appropriation
The process of expressing and joining together; making critical and creative connections that cannot or are not otherwise made; an active process of production in use (Kaiser).
articulation
An economic system characterized by private or corporate ownership of goods, driven by a profit motivation and by competition in a free market; the current global, advanced capitalist marketplace structures production and distribution patterns (including labor) and consumer choices in relation to goods used to style bodies in everyday life (Kaiser).
capitalism
A concept that emerges originally from agricultural roots--i.e., the cultivation of soil and plants; it implies not only growth but also deliberate tending and treating; as a process it involves the social production and reproduction of meaning and consciousness (how we know); as a context it involves a structure of feeling that shapes shared meanings and ways of knowing; it can apply to families, groups, organizations, and subcultures as well as larger societies or even the world (Kaiser).
culture
The dynamic process by which cultural meanings are made possible and through which culture is created and recreated; analogous to a cultural conversation of working through ideas, contradictions, ambivalences; includes both language and visual culture (e.g., fashion, film, art) (Kaiser).
discourse
A metaphor that illustrates how meaning and social practices are constructed and understood; includes principles of selection, emphasis, and presentation composed of little tacit theories about what exists, what happens, and what matters; imposes an order on our experiences (never neutrally or innocently); how social knowledge and experience is organized in a variety of contexts (e.g., news reporting, fashion ads, everyday conversations and appearances): What is included and why? What is not included? Whose voices are being heard, and whose are being left out (Kaiser)?
framing
The idea that “there are practically no serious, well-established forms of culture in the modern world that are self-sufficient and autonomous, out of touch or out of communication with what is going on elsewhere”; economically or politically, the barriers among cultures are rapidly breaking down, resulting in a kind of global paradox in which people around the world may be exposed (resources permitting) to the same kinds of images and objects, and in which there seems to be an increasing degree of differentiation within cultures (Kaiser).
globalization
Specialized techniques, unconscious practices, and ingrained knowledges that enable people to do everyday life and to construct a sense of personal and social reality; these include how we put our looks together (e.g., put on makeup, shave) in everyday life (Kaiser).
habitus
Malcom Barnard (1996) analyzed the word fashion and found that it relates back to the Latin word factio, which means making or doing. Factio is also related to the word “faction,” which has political implications and suggests how fashion becomes a process of differentiating groups of individuals from one another. Fashion is also related to the Latin root word facere, which means to make or to do (Kaiser).
fashion
One advantage of the term style is that it can be uncoupled from the cultural baggage associated with white, western, elite fashion. In the 1970s in England, for example, cultural studies scholars such as Dick Hebdige studied working class “subcultures” and revealed how style can become a process of resisting dominant (more powerful) cultural ways of being. Through music as well as clothing, Rasta and punk subcultures of the 1970s illustrated how the politics and aesthetics of style become intertwined. In fact, the political edge of subcultural style, Hebdige noted, becomes a resource for mainstream fashion, as designers draw their inspiration from street style (Kaiser).
style
A concept that links the concept of style with the totality of one’s visible characteristics is that of appearance style. In previous work, my colleagues and I have described appearance styles as the visible identity constructions that are fashioned through the use of clothing and accessories, arrangements of hair and makeup, and all processes used to modify the shape and appearance of the body (i.e., dieting, exercising, tattooing, piercing, undergoing plastic surgery). Throughout this course, the term style is used as a kind of shortcut to include such visible identity constructions--constructions that involve a process of what might be called, more basically, styling the body. By using the term style, in general, there is an implication of that which is visible, as well as that of any other bodily modifications or other kinds of sensory experiences that are used to “make up identity,” or to help us to create and recreate ourselves on a regular basis. This idea acknowledges that style helps us not only to appear, but also to be (Kaiser).
appearance style/styling the body
To adorn is to decorate, and such a process implies the pursuit of beauty. Roach and Musa identify this implication as a disadvantage when analyzing a given person’s appearance, especially if that appearance represents a different historic or cultural context. In short, there is an issue of power and perspective: Who gets to decide what is beautiful, or what is decorative rather than plain or ugly (kaiser)?
adornment
The term costume generally refers to clothes that belong to a particular cultural or historical context outside of the person naming or describing those clothes. For example, the term is used to refer to “ethnic dress,” clothes of previous historical periods, and clothes designed for performances or rituals---the theatrical stage or film, Halloween, or other special situations. Similar to the concept of adornment, but from a slightly different point of view, a problem with this term relates to power and perspective: Who gets to decide what is a costume, rather than everyday dress? That which seems “different” or exotic in some way may be described as a costume (Kaiser).
costume