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54 Cards in this Set

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You must have a CDL to operate:
A single vehicle with a gross vehicle weight rating GVWR
of more than 26,000 pounds.

A trailer with a GVWR of more than 10,000 pounds if the
gross combination weight rating is more than 26,000
pounds.

A vehicle designed to transport more than 15 persons
including the driver.

Any size vehicle which requires hazardous materials
placards.
2.1 VEHICLE INSPECTION

Why should you inspect your vehicle?
Safety is the most important reason you inspect your vehicle.

Safety for yourself and for other road users.
2.1 VEHICLE INSPECTION

Why should you inspect your vehicle?
A vehicle defect found during an inspection could save you
problems later.
2.1 VEHICLE INSPECTION

Why should you inspect your vehicle?
Federal and state laws require that drivers inspect their vehicles.
2.1 VEHICLE INSPECTION

Pre-trip Inspection
A pre-trip inspection will help you find problems that could cause a crash or breakdown.
2.1 VEHICLE INSPECTION

During a Trip.
Use your senses to check for problems (look, listen,
smell, feel).
2.1 VEHICLE INSPECTION

What critical items item should be when you stop:
-Tires, wheels and rims.
-Brakes.
-Lights and reflectors.
-Brake and electrical connections to trailer.
-Trailer coupling devices.
-Cargo securement devices.
2.1 VEHICLE INSPECTION

After-trip Inspection
Tire Problems/ Wheel and Rim Problems / Bad Brake Drums or Shoes / Steering System Defects / Suspension System Defects / Exhaust System Defects / Emergency Equipment.
2.1 VEHICLE INSPECTION

Emergency Equipment.
Fire extinguisher(s).
Spare electrical fuses (unless equipped with circuit
breakers).
Warning devices for parked vehicles (for example, three
reflective warning triangles).
2.1 VEHICLE INSPECTION

Seven-Step Inspection Method
Notice general condition. Look
for damage or vehicle leaning to one side. Look under the
vehicle for fresh oil, coolant, grease, or fuel leaks. Check the area around the vehicle for hazards to vehicle movement
(people, other vehicles, objects, low hanging wires, limbs,
etc.)
2.1 VEHICLE INSPECTION

Tire tread
4/32 inch tread depth front tires. 2/32
inch on other tires.
2.1 VEHICLE INSPECTION

Suspension System Defects
Cracked or broken spring hangers.

Leaking shock absorbers
2.1 VEHICLE INSPECTION

What should wheel bearing seals be checked for?
Leaks
2.1 VEHICLE INSPECTION

How do you test hydraulic brakes for leaks?
If the vehicle has hydraulic
brakes, pump the brake pedal three times. Then apply firm
pressure to the pedal and hold for five seconds. The pedal should not move. If it does, there may be a leak or other
problem.
2.1 VEHICLE INSPECTION

How many red reflective triangles should you carry?
3
2.1 VEHICLE INSPECTION

Test Parking Brake
Fasten seat belt.
Allow vehicle to move forward slowly. Apply parking brake.
If it doesn’t stop vehicle, it is faulty.
2.1 VEHICLE INSPECTION

Test Service Brake Stopping Action
Go about five miles per hour.
Push brake pedal firmly.
“Pulling” to one side or the other can mean brake trouble.
Any unusual brake pedal “feel” or delayed stopping.
action can mean trouble.
2.1 VEHICLE INSPECTION

During Vehicle Inspection Start Engine and....
Make sure parking brake is on.
Put gearshift in neutral (or “park,” if automatic).
Start engine; listen for unusual noises.
2.2 BASIC CONTROL

During Acceleration you should not roll
Back when you start (Put on the parking brake whenever necessary)
2.2 BASIC CONTROL

Acceleration
Partly engage the clutch before you take your right foot
off the brake.(Put on the parking brake whenever necessary)
to keep from rolling back.
2.2 BASIC CONTROL

On Acceleration
trailer brake hand valve
On a tractor-trailer equipped with a trailer brake hand valve, the hand valve can be applied to keep from rolling back.
2.2 BASIC CONTROL

Acceleration and coupling.
When pulling a trailer, rough acceleration can damage the
coupling.
2.2 BASIC CONTROL

Should you avoid backing
Avoid backing whenever you
can.
2.2 BASIC CONTROL

When Backing
Look at your path.
Back slowly.
Back and turn toward the driver’s side whenever
possible.
Use a helper whenever possible.
2.2 BASIC CONTROL

Why should you back toward the driver’s side
Back to the driver’s
side so you can see better. Backing toward the right
side is very dangerous because you can’t see as well. If you
back and turn toward the driver’s side, you can watch the
rear of your vehicle by looking out the side window. Use driver-
side backing even if it means going around the block to
put your vehicle in this position. The added safety is worth it.
2.2 BASIC CONTROL

When backing, why is it important to use a helper
Use a helper when you can. There are blind
spots you can’t see. That’s why a helper is important.
2.2 BASIC CONTROL

What’s the most important hand signal that you and the
helper should agree on?
STOP
2.2 BASIC CONTROL
What is a pull-up
When backing a trailer, make pull-ups to reposition
your vehicle as needed.
2.3 SHIFTING GEARS

What are the two special conditions where you should
downshift?
Before going down a steep hill and before going taround a curve.
2.3 SHIFTING GEARS

Retarders keep you from skidding when the road is slippery.
True or False?
False
2.3 SHIFTING GEARS

Automatic Transmissions Shifting
You can select a low range to get greater engine braking when going down grades. The lower ranges prevent the transmission from shifting up beyond the selected gear unless the governor (rpm) is exceeded.
2.3 SHIFTING GEARS

Retarders
Retarders help slow a vehicle,
reducing the need for using your brakes. They reduce
brake wear and give you another way to slow down.
2.4 SEEING

How Far Ahead should the driver look?
12 to 15 seconds ahead...at lower speeds that about 1 block.

highway speeds it’s about a quarter of a mile
2.4 SEEING

What is a driver looking for when looking ahead...
Look for Traffic / Look for Road Conditions
2.4 SEEING

Tight Turns.
Give drivers
behind you warning by braking early and slowing gradually
2.4 SEEING

Stopping on the Road
Warn following drivers by flashing your brake lights. Don’t stop suddenly.
2.4 SEEING

Driving Slowly
If
you must drive slowly, alert following drivers by turning on
your emergency flashers if it is legal.
2.4 SEEING

Communicating Your Presence
Let them know you’re there to help prevent accidents
2.4 SEEING

When Passing
When it is legal, tap the
horn lightly or, at night, flash your lights from low to high
beam and back
2.4 SEEING

When It’s Hard to See
Turn on your lights. Use the headlights, not just
the identification or clearance lights. Use the low beams;
high beams can bother people in the daytime as at night.
2.5 COMMUNICATING

When Parked at the Side of the Road
Be sure to turn on the four-way emergency
flashers. If you must stop on a road or the shoulder of any road, you must put out your emergency warning devices within ten
minutes.
2.5 COMMUNICATING

Where should the driver place warning devices when stopped on a two-lane road carrying traffic in both
directions
place warning
devices within ten feet of the front or rear corners to mark
the location of the vehicle and 100 feet behind and ahead
of the vehicle, on the shoulder or in the lane you stopped
2.5 COMMUNICATING

Where should the driver place warning devices when backed beyond any hill, curve, or other obstruction
Within 500 feet.
Where should the driver place warning devices if you must stop on or by a one-way or divided highway,
Place warning devices 10 feet, 100 feet, and 200 feet
toward the approaching traffic.
2.6 CONTROLLING SPEED

There are three things that add up to total stopping distance
Perception Distance
+ Reaction Distance
+ Braking Distance
= Total Stopping Distance
2.6 CONTROLLING SPEED

Perception Distance
This is the distance your vehicle travels from the time your eyes see a hazard until
your brain recognizes it.
2.6 CONTROLLING SPEED

What is the perception distance?
The perception time for an
alert driver is about 3\4 second
2.6 CONTROLLING SPEED

What is the Reaction Distance?
The distance traveled from the
time your brain tells your foot to move from the accelerator until your foot is actually pushing the brake pedal
2.6 CONTROLLING SPEED

Braking Distance
The distance it takes to stop
once the brakes are put on. At 55 mph on dry pavement
with good brakes it can take a heavy vehicle about 170 feet to stop. It takes about 41/2 seconds.
2.6 CONTROLLING SPEED

Total Stopping Distance
At 55 mph it will take
about six seconds to stop and your vehicle will travel
about the distance of a football field.
2.6 CONTROLLING SPEED

Effect of Speed on Stopping Distance
Whenever you double your speed, it takes about four times as much distance to stop
2.6 CONTROLLING SPEED

Hydroplaning
In some weather, water or slush collects on the road. When this happens, your vehicle can hydroplane.
2.6 CONTROLLING SPEED

When hydroplaning driver should use brakes. True or False
False
2.6 CONTROLLING SPEED

Empty trucks have the best braking. True or False?
False