Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the epidemiology of SCCA of the head and neck?
<1% of malignant tumours
Japan has higher rate
Extremely rare in children
M:F = 1.5
55-65 years of age
What is the etiology?
1) exposure to nickel,
2) chlorophenols
3) textile dust,
4) Thorotrast instillation
5) Smoking,
6) History or concurrence of
HPV associated INVERTED sinonasal (Schneiderian) papilloma.
What is the most common site of occurrence greatest to least?
Maxillary sinus (60-70%)
Nasal cavity (12-25%)
Ethmoid sinus (10-15%)
Sphenoid and frontal sinuses ( 1%)
Is SCCA of the nasal vestibule considered carcinoma of the mucosal epithelium?
Squamous cell carcinoma of
the nasal vestibule should be considered a carcinoma of the skin rather than sinonasal mucosal epithelium.
What are the features of verrucous carcinoma?
Verrucous carcinoma of the nasal and paranasal sinuses is very rare. It is a lowgrade variant of squamous cell carcinoma characterized by a papillary or warty exophytic mass of very well-differentiated, keratinized epithelium. The maxillary sinus is the
most common site, followed by the nasal fossa. Rare nasopharyngeal lesions have encroached on the nasal sinus
What is the most common site for verrucous carcinoma of the nasal and paranasal sinuses?
The maxillary sinus is the followed by the nasal fossa.
What are the types of SCCA of the nasal and paranasal sinuses?
1) Verrucous
2) Paiillary
3) Basaloid
4) Spindle
5) Adenosquamous
6) Acantholytic
What is a precursor lesions for sinonasal squamous
cell carcinomas?
The sinonasal Schneiderian (inverted) papilloma appears to be a precursor lesion; the frequency of association has been estimated at about 10%.
Is squamous metaplasia a precurser lesion for sinonasal squamous
cell carcinomas?
Although squamous
metaplasia may precede the
development of sinonasal squamous
carcinoma, a predisposing role for such metaplasia in the development of carcinoma has not been clearly established.
Does maxillary or sinonasal SCCA have a better 5 year survival?
Sinonasal = 60%.
Maxillary = 42%
Do patients with keratinizing or non-keratinizing SCCA do better?
Patients with the non-keratinizing type of carcinoma tend to do better than those with the keratinizing type
What is Lymphoepithelial carcinoma?
Poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma or histologically undifferentiated carcinoma
accompanied by a prominent reactive lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, morphologically
similar to nasopharyngeal
What is the epidemiology Lymphoepithelial carcinoma?
rare, most cases reported in SE Asia, (like nasopharyngeal carcinoma)
M:F = 3:1 Age = 40-60
What is the etiology of Lymphoepithelial carcinoma?
A strong association with the EBV.
What is an important cancer that must be distinguished from lymphoepithelial carcinoma?
Sinonasal lymphoepithelial carcinoma must be distinguished from the vastly more aggressive sinonasal undifferentiated
carcinoma (SNUC). The presence of
lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates, although helpful, cannot be relied on solely in making the distinction. SNUC is characterized
by tumour cells with nuclear pleomorphism, high mitotic rate and frequent necrosis. EBV status is also helpful since SNUC, except for rare cases from Asians, are EBV-negative.
Prognosis and predictive factors of lymphoepithial carcinoma?
The tumour responds favourably to local regional radiotherapy even in the presence of cervical lymph node metastasis. Distant metastasis
(most often to bone), however, is associated with a poor prognosis.
What is Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma?
A highly aggressive and clinicopathologically distinctive carcinoma of uncertain histogenesis that typically presents with locally extensive disease. It is composed
of pleomorphic tumour cells with frequent necrosis, and should be differentiated from lymphoepithelial carcinoma and olfactory neuroblastoma.
What is the epidemiology of Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma?
Rare, with fewer than 100
reported cases. The age range is broad (third to ninth decade), and the median age is in the sixth decade.
M:F= 2-3:1
What is the etiology of SNUC?
Negative for EBV. Some cases have occurred after radiation therapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma
What is the localization of SNUC?
The nasal cavity, maxillary antrum, and ethmoid sinus are involved
alone or in combination. The neoplasm also commonly extends to other contiguous sites.
What are some of the symptoms of SNUC?
Patients have multiple nasal/paranasal
sinus symptoms, usually of relatively
short duration, including nasal obstruction,
epistaxis, proptosis, periorbital
swelling, diplopia, facial pain, and symptoms
of cranial nerve involvement
Is SNUC positive for NSE
Less than 50% of cases tested show NSE positivity
What is the IHC profile for SNUC?
AE1/AE3, CK7, CK8 and CK19 Positive
CK4,CK5/CK6, CK14 and CEA Negative.
< 50% Positive for positive for EMA,
NSE, or p53.
The tumour is negative for CEA, while
positivity for synaptophysin, chromogranin,
or S100 protein is only rarely
Is SNUC positive for synaptophysin chromogrannin, S-100?
How does Olfactory Neuroblastoma IHC differ form SNUC?
ONB expresses NSE as well as synapto/chromo while SNUC does not.
SNUC expresses pancytokeratins and rarely EMA while ONB does not.

Susentacular cells in the periphery of presumed ONB nests express S-100
What is the IHC profile of Lymphepithelial CA?
AE1/AE3, EMA and EBER positive (strongly).