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98 Cards in this Set

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What is the adaptor molecule that holds amino acids and interact with mRNA codons?
tRNA
When a tRNA becomes covalently linked to an amino
acid what is it called?
aminoacyl tRNA
What are aminoacyl tRNA synthetases?
enzymes that are responsible for catylizing the addition of amino acids to tRNAs
How many aminoacyl tRNA synthases are there?
20: one for each if the 20 major amino acids
How many tRNAs are there if there are 61 codons that code for 20 amino acids? WHY?
There are less than 61: about 40 because the third base position is variable and not as important. There is a 3rd base "wobble"
what is inosine and why is it important.
Inosine is a nitrogen base that may appear in the 3rd position of a tRNA anitcodon. It is important because it can pair with A, C, or U and allows for "wobble" to occur.
What is the first step in translation?
initiation.
What happens in the first step of initiation?
In the first step of initiation the mRNA binds with the small subunit of the Ribosome at the m RNAs ribosome binding site (which is about 6 nucleotides upstream of the start codon)with the help of enzymes called initiation factors (in Eukaryotes initiation factors bind to the 5' cap and guide it to the ribosome)
What is it called when gene flow stops because of geographic barriers?
allopatric speciation
What is it called when gene flow stops because of a non-geographic barrier?
sympatric speciatin
What is it called when gene flow stops becuase of dysfunctional meiosis?
chromosomal speciation
What is very rapid speciation?
adaptive radiation
What does hybrid bigor refer to?
Vigor of hybrids between lines that are highly inbred for different alleles and that are then crossed to yeild a hybrid. Hybrid vigor therefore refers to "heterozygote" vigor since the cross would be a cross of two homozygotes
What does hybrid invaiblility refer to?
an offspring from a cross of two species that is weak, dies early etc.
What does hybrid sterility refer to?
dysfunctional meiosis (and an inability to produce gametes) in the offspring of two species
What is vicariance
allopatirc speciatiomn due to things like cotinental drift and other land movements
What is refugium?
allopatric speciation due to climate change
What is dispersal and colonization?
allopatric speciation due to island colonization
turkey breast sandwich
3.50
ham and cz
3.50
tuna salad
3.50
chicken salad
3.50
egg salad
3.50
grilled chicken sand
3.50
club sandwiches
4.95
sandwich on wrap
4.50
plain steak
sm bulkey roll 3.50
lrg fr bread 4.95
steak + anything
sm bulkey roll 3.95
lrg fr roll 4.95
veggie break burrito
3.95
sausage break burritto
4.95
lunch buritto
What with?
4.95
steak or chicken
tex mex fries
2.95
tex mex hf w cheese
3.95
hamburger
3.50
cheeseburger
3.95
BLT
2.95
grill cz
2.50
grill cz and tomato
2.75
gr cz, tomato, bacon
3.50
grill ham and cz
3.50
grill tuna melt
3.50
salads
3.95
pastrami meat
5.95
RUEBEN
5.95
bacon turkey wrap
5.95
grilled veggie
5.95
chicken or steak fajita
5.95
lemon pepper chicken
5.95
chicken shish kabob
5.95
the gobbler
5.95
CHICKEN CORDON BLUE
5.95
chicken ceasar wrap
5.95
greek salad wrap
4.25
greek salad wrap with chicken
6.45
muffin
1.50
bagel
1.25
bagel w cream cz
1.95
sm english muffin
1.25
lrg english muffin
1.50
s slices tst
1.00
raisin tst
1.25
fried egg sandwich
2.25
egg and cz sand
2.75
egg and meat sand
3.50
egg, cz, meat sand
3.95
break club
4.95
egg and cz wrap
3.75
egg cz and meat wrap
4.95
one egg and tst
2.25
one egg, HF, tst
2.75
2 eggs and tst
2.75
2 eggs, HF, tst
3.25
omelettes
5.95
lrg english muffin
1.50
s slices tst
1.00
raisin tst
1.25
fried egg sandwich
2.25
egg and cz sand
2.75
egg and meat sand
3.50
egg, cz, meat sand
3.95
break club
4.95
egg and cz wrap
3.75
egg cz and meat wrap
4.95
What are the three steps of brain development?
1. 18th day after conception part if the ectoderm of the back of the embryo thickens and forms a neural plate
2. edge of plates curl towards each other, touch fuse together and form a neural tube by day 21
3. The neural tube will become the brain and spinal cord it differentiates into 4 parts:
Forebrain – telencephalon
Midbrain – mesencephaon
Hindbrain – rhombencephalon
Spinal cord
What do the original main parts that develop in the brain turn into at adulthood?
The forebrain divides into the telencephalon and diencephalon. The telencephalon includes the, Cerebral cortex, Basal ganglia, Limbic system. The diencephalon includes the Thalamus and Hypothalamus.
The Midbrain forms the mesencephalon which includes the tectum and tagmentum. The hindbrain divides into the metencephalon and mylencephalon. The metencephalon includes the cerebellum and pons and the mylencelphallon includes the medulla.
What are the seven major regions of the brain?
cerbral hemispheres, diencephalon, midbrain, pons, cerebellum, medulla, spinal cord
What is the main function of the cerebral cortex?
sensation, perception, cognition
What is the main function of the basal ganglia?
coarse motor control
What is the main function of the limbic system?
emotions
What are the main components of the basal ganglia?
caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pollidus
What are the main components of the limbic system
hypothalamus, amygdala, fornix, mammilary bodies
What is the main function of the talamus
senory relay station
What does the thalamus consist of?
Lateral geniculae, medial geniculate, and ventrolateral genicualte
WHat does the hypothalamus do?
Control hormones via pituitary
What is the tectum responsible for
reflexes
What parts make up the tagmentum?
rostral end of the reticular formation, the periaquiductal gray matter, the substantial nigra, the venral tagmental area and the red nucleus
What does the reticular formation do?
receives sensory info via various pathways and projects axons to the cerebral cortex, thalamus, and spinal cord. It plays a role in sleep and arousal, attention, muscle tonus, and movement
What does the periaquiductal grey do?
control species-typical movements such as fighting and mating. Opiates reduce pain by stimulating this region