Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/50

Click to flip

50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Fourth leading cause of death from ID.
TB
How many people worldwide are infected w/ TB?
2 billion
How many new cases of TB are found each year?
9 million
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is spread through _____ .
the air by droplets
____ droplets are more likely to be infectious.
Small
T/F: Once droplets hit the ground they are no longer infectious.
False, on the ground the droplets dessicate and dry bacteria can be blown around and inhaled
Causes bovine TB and is spread through milk products, used to immunize people in some parts of the world
M. bovis
If you are exposed to TB there is a ___ chance of infection.
30%
Of those infected w/ TB ___ will get early progression TB.
5%
___ of those infected w/ TB will get late progressive TB.
5%
Lifetime risk for an infected individual of developing active TB is ____
10%
If HIV positive, there is a ___ ANNUAL risk or progression to active disease.
10%
As CD4 counts fall, TB is one of the ____ infections to appear.
earliest
In full blown AIDS patients, they are less likely to form ___ w/ TB.
cavities
Very important to watch patients swallow pills.
Direct Observed Therapy
First line TB drugs:
isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide, ethambutol, streptomycin
Second line TB drugs:
capreomycin, amikacin, kanamycin are injectable
fluoroquinolones, cycloserine, ethionamide, para-aminosalicylic acid
Maximum benefit was found w/ this duration of treatment.
9 months
What is causing the new TB epidemic?
decline in public health infrastructure, increased immigration, HIV, MDR
MDR is resistant to ____ and ___.
rifampin and isoniazid
TB treatment is always given in _____.
combination
Primary resistance is seen in an ____ patient.
untreated
Secondary resistance is someone w/ ______.
at least 30 days of treatment of TB
TB gets into the lymphatics and drains into the bloodstream for _____ weeks b/f an immune response is generated.
6-8
T/F: If you are infected w/ TB but do not have the active disease, you are still infectious.
False, you are not infectious,
Sputum smear will be ___ in an infected person w/o active disease.
negative
CXR in an infected person w/o active disease.
usually normal
PPD skin test is usually ____ in an infected person w/o active infectino.
positive
Symptoms of TB
prolonged, productive cough
deep chest pain
hempoptysis-very sensitive

Systemic: fever, chills, night sweats, appetite/weight loss, easy fatigability
The systemic symptoms of TB can be consued w/?
lymphoma
How to diagnose TB
PPD test, CXR, sputum smear, cultures
What is the only absolute confirmation of TB?
cultures
Acid fast stain will pick up ____
TB, along w/ atypical mycobacteria, Nocardia, and Rhodococcus
In a PPD test make sure to measure the diameter of the _____
induration
T/F: Once you have a positive PPD test, you should be retested annually.
False, every time you test it activates more memory cells and you can develop a significant response.
Abnormalities on CXR are seen in ____
apical and posterior segements of upper lobes or superior portions of lower lobes
T/F: A positive CXR is not confirmation of TB.
True, only culture
What else can cause solitary lung lesions like TB?
histoplasmosis
Calcification of lobe site due to prior infection w/ TB
Ghon focus
Calcification of lobe along with lymph nodes due to prior TB infection
Ranke complex
A ___ stain can increase sensitivity by 10-20% or AF stain.
fluorochrome
TB causes ____ necrosis in lung tissue.
caseating
Most cavities begin in the ____
periphery
If cavity invades bronchus then patient develops
hemoptysis
TB of spine
Pott's disease
Only confirmatory test and only way to speciate, required for drug susceptibility tests
Cultures
Liquid/Solid media grows TB better?
liquid
____ are more likely to have severe diffuse TB w/ TB meningitis, bone and joint involvement, or disseminated TB
Children
Children are treated for ___ months compared to ___ months for adults.
9-12; 6
TB drugs interfere w/ ____.
protease inhibitors