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20 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
common name of 1,2 diacylglycerol phosphate?
phosphatidic acid
What three precursors can the intestine use in tryglyceride synthesis?
monoacylglycerol, glycerol, DHAP
What two precursors can the liver use in tryglyceride synthesis?
glycerol and DHAP
What precursor can adipose tissue use to synthesize triglycerides?
What does glycerokinase do in tryglyceride synthesis?
phosphorylates glycerol to alpha glycerophosphate in the liver and intestine (uses one ATP)
What does alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase do in tryglyceride synthesis?
it reduces DHAP to alpha-glycerophosphate, oxidizing an NADH to NAD+
What does monoacylglycerol acyl transferase do in triglyceride synthesis?
it adds an acyl to the beta carbon of a monoacylglycerol in the intestine.
How do you convert alpha glycerophosphate to phosphatidic acid in tryglyceride synthesis?
1. add two acyl-CoA molecules 2. add a water and extract a Pi with phosphatidate phosphohydrolase
What enzyme catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidic acid to triacylglycerol? What does it do?
Diacylglycerol Acyl Transferase adds an acyl CoA to phosphatidic acid
Where does diacylglycerol acyl transferase function?
lipoprotein lipase
degrades triglycerides into free fatty acids and glycerol in adipose tissue and muscle
how does insulin effect triglyceride synthesis?
stimulates triglyceride synthesis, the storage of glucose energy as fat and glycerol
how is the NADH pool maintained for use in triglyceride synthesis?
by oxidizing ethanol to acetaldehyde and acetaldehyde to acetate via their respective dehydrogenase enzymes
how does chronic ethanol alcohol intake effect triglyceride synthesis?
it stimulates it because ethanol oxidation is creating more NADH which stimulates the reduction of DHAP to alpha glycerophosphate, the first step in triglyceride synthesis
hormone sensitive lipase
triglyceride lipase in adipose tissue
what activates triglyceride lipase?
phosphorylation by a protein kinase that is in turn activated by cAMP mediated protein kinase
what is the rate limiting step in the triglyceride degradation pathway?
hormone sensitive lipase degradation of triglyceride to one free fatty acid and a diglyceride
why does glycerol leave adipose tissue via the blood? where does it go?
there is no glycerol kinase in adipose tissue so it must go to the liver to participate in gluconeogenesis
what hormones activate triglyceride degradation in adipose tissue?
glucagon and catecholamines
what happens to triglycerides in diabetes?
insulin deficient so triglyceride degradation constantly stimulated -> increased ffa and glycerol in circulation to liver -> increased beta oxidation and ketone body formation -> ketoacidosis