• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/26

Click to flip

26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Leptospirosis:

Organism? (3)

Method of transmission? (3)

Reservoir? (2)
L.interrogans
Gram -ve spiral bacillus

Contact with urine: skin abrasion >6h in water
Indirect: vertical, sexual & blood (VV rare)

Rats>pigs & dogs
Leptospirosis:

Thai serovars? (3)

Control & prevention? (3)
Australis
Icterhaemorrhagiae
Bratislava

1. Control infection source: rat control
2. Interrupt transmission: avoid contact
3. Intervention at human level: education, immunisation
Leptospirosis:

Pathophysiology? (3)

Organs affected? (2*2)
Adherence to cell walls: dissemination.
Cytotoxic.
Vasculitis.

Kidney: nephritis & ATN
Liver: necrosis

Lung muscle & eye (uveitis) also affected.
Leptospirosis:

Clinical classification? (2)

Incubation? (1)

Clinical course? (2*3)

Exceptions? (2)
Anicteric (90%)
Weils disease (10%): jaundice ARDS

1-2 weeks

1. Leptospiremic (week 1) leptospires in blood/CSF: T, H, rigors, MYALGIA, MP rash
2. Leptospiuric: for weeks- months following convalescence, UVEITIS (<5%)

15-40% Asymptomatic!
Not seen in Weils Disease
Weils disease:

Organism? (1)

Clinical features? (3)
Leptospirosis interrogans

Jaundice
Renal failure
Haemorrhage
ARDS
Leptospirosis diagnosis:

Direct? (2)

Indirect? (2)
Blood/CSF or urine culture depending on time period.

4 fold rise in MAT or single titre of >1:400
Leptospirosis treatment? (1)

Prognosis? (2)
Doxycycline

Good unless icteric (Weils) 5-10% mortality
Anthrax:

Organism? (1)

Morphology? (3)

Method of transmission? (3)
Bacillus Anthracis

Gram +ve, spore forming, TOXIN producing

Skin 95%>ingestion>inhalation (hence bioagent)
Anthrax:

Presentations of anthrax? (4)
1. Cutaneous (95%): papule then vesicle then eschar by d10.
2. Gastrointestinal: N+V AbP, dysentry,
3. Inhalation: T, ARDS >90% die within 36hrs
4.Orophryngeal
Anthrax diagnosis? (2)

Treatment? (2)
MC+S, PCR

Ciprofloxacin or doxycyclin + one additional eg. rif, amp, vanc
Rabies:

Organism? (1)

Morphology? (2)

Transmission? (2)
Rabies virus

bullet shaped rhabdovirus

95% dog bite, <5% rat other bite, aerosol possible
Rabies:

Cardinal signs? (3)

Clinical course? (3*3)

Method of transmission? (3)
erophobia/hydrophobia
Loss of conciousness
ANS stimulation

Prodrome: parasthesia pain puritis @ site followed by
1. Furious form (80%) agitation, aggression, confusion
2. Paralytic
Rabies post exposure treatment options? (3)

Vaccination regimes? (3)
No treatment
Vaccine
Vaccine + RIg

ESSEN (WHO)d1,3,7,14,28
TRC-ID d1,3,7,28,90
+/- RIg infiltrated into site up until d7
Tetanus:

Organism? (1)

Morphology? (4)

Method of transmission? (2)
Clostridium tetani

Gram+, spore forming, flagellated, anerobe

Broken skin with soil contact, umbilical cord cutting; almost 1/2 of mortality
Tetanus:

Pathophysiology? (3)

Clinical features? (4)

Consequences? (2)
Bacteria multiply in wound.
TOXIN ascends by axonal transport to CNS.
Block GABA>glycine

Classic: trisums, risus sardonicus, opsithonus, spasms

Respiratory muscle paralysis, 2ary infection
Tetanus management? (3)


Tetanus vaccine?
Debride wound.
HTIg, Abx
ITU, BDZ, ventilation

Live attenuated (formaldehyde)
Brucellosis epidemiology:

Cases/y? (1)

High prevalence? (3)
500,000/y

Med, ME, SAm
Brucellosis:

Organism? (1)

Transmission? (1)

Control? (3)
Gram -ve coccobacillus

Unpasteurised dairy products

Vaccination of lifestock
Personal protection
Pasteurisation
Tularemia:

aka? (1)

Organism? (4)

Transmission? (3)
Rabbit fever, deer fly fever

gram -ve intracellular (macrophage) fastidious bacillus

Direct, ingestion or tick borne (rare)
Tularemia:

Clinical syndromes? (6)
Ulceroglandular & glandular (80%)
Typhoidal (15%): meningoencephalitis 10% mortality
Pulmonary (rare): 50% mortality
Occuloglandular, oropharyngeal
Tularemia treatment:

Non complicated? (1)

Complicated? (2)
Ciprofloxacin

Typhoidal: Gentamicin

Pulmonary: Streptomycin
Rat bite:

OrganismS? (2*2)

Transmission? (2)
Complex of TWO coexisting conditions:

1. Rat bite fever: gram -ve bacillus: streptobacillus monoliformis
2. So-do-ku: flagellated spirochete: spirillum minus

60% bite 40% ingestion (Haverhill Fever)
"Rat bite fever"

Clinical features? (3+1)

Diagnosis? (2)
Classical triad: relapsing T, rigors & polyarthralgia
MP or petichial rash on hands & feet in 75%

Culture from blood, joint fluid
Serology
Onchocerciasis:

Organism? (1)

Morphology? (3)

Transmission? (1)
Onchocerca volvulus

Unsheathed microfilaria, pointed tail.
Onchocerciasis:

Pathophysiology? (1)

Clinical features? (2)
Host response to dead dying microfilaria.

Skin lesions: papules, pigment changes, nodules
Eye lesions
Onchocerciasis:

Diagnosis? (1)

Treatment? (1)
Skin snips

Ivermectin