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64 Cards in this Set

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Culture Bound
Culture specific
Culture Blind
Culture ignorant; universal
Etic
Universal(short leash behaiours)
Emic
Local/Culture Specific
Wilson's Leash Principle
WILSON CALLED THE "LEASH PRINCIPLE" SOME BEHAVIORS, SUCH AS SLEEPING, EATING, DRINKING, AND SEXUAL ACTIVITY ARE ON "SHORT LEASHES" IN THAT THE BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND PHYSICAL NEEDS OF THE SPECIES LITERALLY GUARANTEES GREAT SIMILARITY IN SUCH BEHAVIORS ACROSS CULTURES. SHORT LEASH BEHAVIORS ARE MORE LIKELY TO BE ETIC.
Wilsons Long Leash Principle
BEHAVIOR ON "LONG AND FLEXIBLE LEASHES" PERMIT MUCH GREATER DIFFERENCES ACROSS CULTURES--CHILD-REARING PRACTICES, MUSIC, NATURE OF SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS SUCH AS HOW RELIGION/SPIRITUALITY IS EXPRESSED. LONG LEASH BEHAVIORS MORE LIKELY TO BE EMIC.
Individualism + properties
Sense of own identity/independent

1. Autonomous
2. Idiosyncratic-do your own thing
3. Express anger openly regardless of ingroup/outgroup
4. Independent-move out of parents asap
5. Values- ingroup harmony, interpersonal relationships
6. Groups-know everyone equally regardless of ingroup/outgroup
Collectivism
Interdependent defined in relation to others

1. Embedding in a collective
2. Following social norms and sensitivity to what group expects
3. Express anger openly only in outgroup, in-group they stay calm
4. Interdependent- live with parents till marriage
5. Values- achievements, win in competition
6. Groups-close to ingroup, not to outgroup
Martha Bernal’s- 3 Stage Model of ethnic identity development
(1) UNEXAMINED ETHNIC IDENTITY(2) AN ENCOUNTER STAGE, WHERE THERE IS AN ENCOUNTER OR CONFRONTATION WITH AN EXPERIENCE WHICH TRIGGERS THE EXPLORATION OF ETHNIC IDENTITY, BEING CALLED A NAME, BEING TREATED DIFFERENTLY, FOLLOWED BY (3) RESOLUTION OF THE CONFLICTS OR CONTRADICTIONS POSED BY ONE'S STATUS IN SOCIETY, A COMMITMENT TO AN ETHNIC IDENTITY, AN INTERNALIZATION OF IT.
Hussein Bulhan’s definition of oppression
Oppression is any relationship or process by which one group violates the physical, social, or psychological integrity of another
Cross cultural psychology
IN THE EARLY YEARS THE CONCEPT OF CULTURE REFERRED TO THE WAYS OF LIFE OF GEOGRAPHICALLY ISOLATED AND SEPARATED PEOPLES WITH RELATIVELY WEAK LINKS TO THE WORLD OUTSIDE THEIR OWN. IT RESULTED IN EXOTIC NOTIONS ABOUT PEOPLE WHO WERE DESCRIBED AS LIVING, IN MANY WAYS, IN A DIFFERENT WORLD. TODAY THE CULTURE CONCEPT IS MORE CONTESTED, BECAUSE THE WORLD IS MORE INTERDEPENDENT
Situational Identity
Heightened sense of identity in certain situations
Paulo Friere’s model of Community Empowerment
1. Critical awareness and understanding of the oppressive system
2. Commitment to involvement in the struggle
3. Collective action
Acculturation rates
Children acculturation faster, parents slower
Assimilation Rates
Parents assimilation steady, children assimliation declining
John Berry Model of Acculturation
Involves answering two questions
-Do i want to maintain my own culture?
-Do i want to maintain relations with the other group
Culture Broker
Children Fulfilling Family Functions Because of Acculturation Gap

Ex. Translating/answering the phone
Types of Stressors
Major life events
Daily Hassles
Ambient/Chronic Stressors(racism, poverty, illness)
Life Transitions(to high school, parenthood, etc.)
Risk Factors
Aspects of the person or the environment which increase the chances of a bad outcome
Personal or environmental
Protective factors
Aspects of the person and environment which lessen the chances that the person will have a bad outcome
personal and environmental
SOCIAL NETWORKS
ARE COMPRISED OF THOSE INDIVIDUALS WHO ARE IMPORTANT TO YOU, WHO YOU COULD TURN TO FOR DIFFERENT KINDS OF PROBLEMS.
Structural Characteristics of Networks
HOW LARGE THEY ARE, THE GENDER AND ETHNICITY COMPOSITION

--intensity and length of relationships
Indigeous Ties
Naturally occuring social support

Just as good or better than grafted support
Grafted Ties
Planned social support
Personal Resources for Coping with Stress
managing emotions, motivations, cognitions
Environmental Resources for Coping with Stress
youth groups, mutual help organizations, religious congregations
Problem-focused coping
Addressing a problem directly
Emotion-focused coping
address the emotions that accompany the problem rather than the problem itself
Life Domain Approach to Understanding Stress
Daily life is a mosaic of potentially interdependent life settings and relationships: work, family, friends, leisure, etc. THESE DIFFERENT SETTINGS AND KINDS OF RELATIONSHIPS CONSTITUTE THE LIFE DOMAINS APPROACH OF SWINDLE AND MOOS
-The importance of stress depends on the domain and its importance to the individual.
Direct Effects of Support Hypothesis
Social Support has equivalent positive impact on well-being under both high and low stress conditions
Social support is always good
Stress Buffering Hypothesis
Social support has greater positive impact under conditions of high stress than low stress
Downside of Social support
The more the potential for joy, the more potential for pain.

Social support may come from people who promote potentially negative behaviors
Elements of Self-Help Groups
Facilitated by a person in recovery from the focal problem, and do not have professional involvement

12 step programs
Sense of Community
A READILY AVAILABLE, MUTUALLY SUPPORTIVE NETWORK OF RELATIONSHIPS ON WHICH ONE COULD DEPEND
McMillan-Chavis model of sense of community
A FEELING THAT MEMBERS HAVE OF BELONGING, A FEELING THAT MEMBERS MATTER TO ONE ANOTHER AND TO THE GROUP, AND A SHARED FAITH THAT MEMBERS' NEEDS WILL BE MET THROUGH THEIR COMMITMENT TO BE TOGETHER
Characteristics of a competent community
THE COMPETENT COMMUNITY IS ONE WHICH
(A) PAYS ATTENTION TO COMMUNITY CONFLICT AND TRIES TO FIND WAYS TO RESOLVE IT,
(B) FOCUSES ON COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT, THAT IS, WORKS TOGETHER TO SOLVE COMMUNITY PROBLEMS,
(C) DEVELOPS RELATIONSHIP WITH FORCES OUTSIDE THE COMMUNITY WHICH CAN PROVIDE RELEVANT RESOURCES, SUCH AS OUTSIDE RESEARCH PROJECTS WHICH CONTRIBUTE TO THE ECONOMICS AND DATA OF COMMUNITY LIFE, AND
(D) PROVIDES MECHANISMS FOR SOCIALIZING THE NEXT GENERATION OF COMMUNITY LEADERS TO FURTHER THE COMMUNITY OVER THE LONG HAUL.
EACH OF THESE, IN TURN, FOSTERS SENSE OF COMMUNITY OF CITIZENS.
Primary Prevention
PRIMARY REFERS TO AN INTERVENTION GIVEN TO AN ENTIRE POPULATION WHEN THEY ARE NOT IN A CONDITION OF KNOWN NEED OR DISTRESS. THE GOAL IS TO LOWER THE INCIDENCE, OR NEW RATE, OR DISORDERS. (PUTTING FLUORIDE IN THE WATER, FOR EXAMPLE)
Secondary Prevention
SECONDARY PREVENTION IS THE SAME AS EARLY INTERVENTION, PROGRAMS TARGETED TO INDIVIDUALS DEFINED AS BEING AT RISK FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF BAD OUTCOMES, SUCH AS LATER ACADEMIC DIFFICULTY
Tertiary Prevention
Intervention given to people who already have a disorder with the intention of limiting the disability caused by the disorder

prevent re-occurance
Segmented Assimilation
We assimilate to our specific local context not the broader American culture
Separation
Identify with their culture of origin, interact with the dominant culture only in limited ways
Biculturalism
Participate in meaningful ways in both their culture of origin and the dominant culture
Marginality
Individuals cannot identify with either their culture of origin or with the dominant culture.
Dimension of Human Diversity
Culture, Sexual Orientation, Race, Ability/disability, Ethnicity, Age, Gender, Social classes, Religion
Difference between an oppression perspective and a cultural one on diversity
At the group level, ethnic identity reflects cultural heritage and for some ethnic groups, oppression or reaction to discrimination as well.

Oppression – Really believing one is inferior and does not deserve equal treatment
Is biculturalism always best?
No, There is no best way to acculturate because of:

Segmented Assimilation
Discrimination
Effects of Self-Help groups
They are not a cure all, but provide more positive changes in psychological, interpersonal and community adjustment.

Enhanced social networks
Anticipatory coping
Preventive coping
Cognitive Appraisal
The process by which individuals assess their particular circumstances. BECAUSE IT IS THE PERCEPTION OF AN EVENT WHICH MAKES IT STRESSFUL OR NOT, THE STRESS CONCEPT DOES NOT REFER TO THE OBJECTIVE EVENT BUT TO HOW IT IS APPRAISED BY THE INDIVIDUAL.
Primary Appraisal v. Secondary Appraisal
PRIMARY REFERS TO WHETHER OR NOT YOU VIEW THE SITUATION AS ONE REQUIRING SOME KIND OF COPING

SECONDARY APPRAISAL INVOLVES AN ASSESSMENT OF THE RESOURCES AND COPING OPTIONS AVAILABLE FOR RESPONDING TO THE STRESSOR
Functions of social networks
-Social integration
-Development and maintenance of identity and self-esteem
-Coping assistance
-Affect regulation
-Social control
Bower’s Model of Competence (KISS – AID – ICE)
Three types of settings through which all societies prepare their young for adult life:
Key-integrated social systems (KISS)- from conception through childhood

Ailing-in-difficulty institutions (AID)-which come into play if the KISS is not loving enough-Mental health clinics, Local police

Illness correctional endeavors (ICE)- Facilities such as psychiatric hospitals or prisons where people go when aid is not enough
Universal/Selective/Indicated Prevention
Universal (Everyone)
Selective (people with above average risk for disorder)
Indicated (people with high risk for disorder)
Prevention of Disorder vs. Promotion of Wellness & Competence
Prevention – preventing something bad from happening (from the Latin “to anticipate”--“before something to come”)
Promotion – promoting something good which will serve as a protective factor against developing something bad
Risk
RISK FACTORS ARE DEFINED AS THOSE FACTORS OF INDIVIDUALS AND ENVIRONMENTS THAT REDUCE THE BIOLOGICAL, PSYCHOLOGICAL, AND/OR SOCIAL CAPACITIES OF INDIVIDUALS TO MAINTAIN THEIR WELL-BEING AND FUNCTION ADAPTIVELY IN SOCIETY.
Protection
PROTECTIVE FACTORS ARE THE OPPOSITE; THOSE FEATURES OF INDIVIDUALS OR ENVIRONMENTS THAT OPERATE TO INCREASE OR ENHANCE THE CAPACITIES OF INDIVIDUALS TO COPE AND ADAPT.
Resilience
That quality that allows one to adapt to adverse, challenging, and threatening concepts.
“Invulnerable Children” – Those children who are stress-resistant and turn out better than expected given the risk factors and their environment (war, floods, parental disability)
Strengths
What gives people strength in times of adversity is an important aspect of prevention

SPIRITUALITY IS OFTEN MENTIONED HERE AS A STRENGTH UNDER SUCH CIRCUMSTANCES, BUT THE LARGER QUESTION IS WHAT PEOPLE HAVE THAT THEY CAN TURN TO WHEN TIMES GET TOUGH. THESE CAN, OF COURSE, INCLUDE BOTH INNER QUALITIES AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES
Albee’s Individual Level Prevention Equation
Incidence of behavioral and emotional disorder in individuals
THE MORE STRESS AND INDIVIDUAL VULNERABILITY, THE GREATER THE RISK
Elias’ Environmental Level Equation
THE STRESSORS AND RISK FACTORS IN THE ENVIRONMENT ENHANCE RISK AND VARIOUS ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES DECREASE IT
IOM prevention research cycle
THE IOM REPORT PUT A PRIORITY ON THE PREVENTION OF DISORDER RATHER THAN THE PROMOTION OF COMPETENCE

THE IOM REPORT SUGGESTED THAT PREVENTION BE A TERM RESTRICTED TO THE PREVENTION OF SOME KIND OF DISORDER
Gerald Caplan
-Types of prevention
-POPULATION-BASED PSYCHIATRY, THAT IS, EFFORTS ON HOW TO COORDINATE SERVICES AND INTERVENTIONS WITH AN ENTIRE POPULATION, A COMMUNITY
-
Interpersonal Cognitive Problem-Solving (ICPS)
Uses “dialoguing” (open-ended questions) between teacher and child to improve kids’ ability to think through how to solve age-related interpersonal problems (making friends, resolving conflict)
Transportability of Programs (Sundberg Study)
THE DEGREE TO WHICH INTERVENTIONS DEVELOPED IN ONE SOCIOCULTURAL CONTEXT ARE RELEVANT TO OTHER CONTEXTS WHICH DIFFER. THIS IS CALLED THE ISSUE OF TRANSPORTABILITY OF PROGRAMS ACROSS DIFFERENT LOCATIONS AND CULTURAL GROUPS. IT IS A CENTRAL ISSUE FOR COMMUNITY PSYCHOLOGY BECAUSE, AS THE STUDY OF PEOPLE IN CONTEXT, IT DOES NOT ASSUME THAT ONE SHOE FITS ALL--THAT A PROGRAM DEVELOPED IN COMMUNITY A IS READILY APPLICABLE IN COMMUNITY B.

Tried to find out how relevant prevention programs developed in the United States were to other countries