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77 Cards in this Set

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blunt trauma
An injury produced by the wounding forces of compression and change of speed, both of which can disrupt tissue.
cavitation
A temporary or permanent opening produced by a force that pushes body tissues laterally away from the track of a projectile.
kinematics
The process of predicting injury patterns that can result from the forces and motions of energy.
penetrating trauma
An injury produced by crushing and stretching forces of a penetrating object that results in some form of tssue disruption.
disseminated intravascular coagulation
A grave coagulopathy that results from overstimulation of the clotting and anticlotting processes in response to disease and injury.
hemostasis
The cessation of bleeding by chemical or mechanical means or by substances that arrest the blood flow.
pulse pressure
The difference between systemic and pulmonic pressure.
abrasion
A partial-thickness injury caused by scraping or rubbing away of a layer or layers of skin.
amputation
A complete or partial loss of a limb caused by mechnical force.
avulsion
A full-thivkness skin loss in wih the wound edges cannot be approximated.
compartment syndrome
The result of a crush injury, usually caused by compressive forces or blunt trauma to muscle groups confined in tight fibrous sheaths with minimal ability to stretch.
crush injury
Injury from exposure of tissue to a compressive force sufficient to interfere with the normal structure and metabolic function of the involved cells and tissues.
crush syndrome
A life-threatening and sometimes peventable complication of prolonged immobilization, a pathological process that causes destruction, alteration, or both of muscle tissue.
hematoma
A closed injury characterized by blood vessel disruption and swelling beneath the epidermis.
puncture wound
An open injury that results from contact with a penetrating object.
rhabdomyolysis
An acute, sometimes fatal, disease characterized by destruction of skeletal muscle.
eschar
A scab or dry crust resulting from a thermal or chemical burn.
full-thickness burn
A burn injury in which the entire thickness if the epidermis and dermis is destroyed; also known as third-degree burn.
inhalation injury
A upper and/or lower airway injury that results from theremal and/or chemical exposure.
Lund and Browder chart
A method to estimate burn injury that assigns specific numbers to each body part and that accounts for developmental changes in percentages of body surface area.
partial-thickness burn
A burn injury that extends theough the epidermis to the dermis; considered a seep partial-thickness injury if it extends to the basal layers of the skin, also known as a second degree burn.
rule of nines
A method to estimate burn injury that divides the total body surface into segments that are multiples of 9%.
superficial burn
A burn in which only a superficial layer of epidermal cells is destroyed; also known as a first-degree burn.
anterograde amnesia
The loss of memory for events that ocurred immediately after the recovery of consciousness.
Battle's sign
Ecchymosis over the mastoid process caused by a fracture of the temporal bone.
cerebral perfusion pressure
A measure of the amount of blood flow to the brain calculated by subtracting the intracranial pressure from the mean systemic arterial blood pressure.
Cushing's triadt
Increased systolic pressure, widened pulse pressure, and decrease in the pulse and respiratory rate, which result from increased intracranial pressure.
decerebrate posturing
A position in which a comatose patient's arms are extended and internally rotated and the legs are extended with the feet in forced plantar flexion; usually observed in oatients who have compression of the brainstem.
decorticate posturing
A position in which the comatose patient's upper extremities are rigidly flexed at the elbows and at the wrists, usually observed in patients who have a lesion in the mesencephalic region of the brain.
intracerebral hematoma
A accumulation of blood or fluid within the tissue of the brain.
Le Fort fracture
A fracture pattern that can be produced in the midface region.
mean arterial pressure
The arithmetic mean of the blood pressure in the arterial portion of the circulation.
raccoon's eyes
Ecchymosis of one or both orbits caused by fracture of the base of the sphenoid sinus.
retrograde amnesia
The loss of memory for events that occurred before the event that precipitated the amnesia.
subarachnoid hematoma
A collection of blood or fluid in the subarachnoid space.
anterior cord syndrome
A spinal cord injury usually seen in flexion injuries; caused by pressure on the anterior aspect of the spinal cord by a ruptured intervertebral disk or fragments of the vertebral body extruded posteriorly into the spinal canal.
axial loading
Vertical compression of the spine that results when direct forces are transmitted along the length of the spinal column.
Brown-Sequard syndrome
A hemitransection of the spinal cord. In the classis presentation, pressure on half of the spinal cord results in weakness of the upper and lower extremities on the ipsilateral (same) side and loss of pain and temperature sensation on the contralateral (opposite) side.
central cord syndrome
A spinal cord injury commonly seen with hyperextension or flexion cervical injuries; characterized by greater motor impairment of the upper than lower extremities.
distraction
A spinal injury that occurs if the cervical spine is stopped suddenly while the weight and momentum of the body pull away from it.
neurogenic hypotension
Hypotension following spinal shock; caused by a loss of sympathetic tone to the vessels.
spinal shock
A temporary loss of all types of spinal cord function distal to a cord injury.
subluxation
A partial dislocation.
transection
A complete or incomplete lesion to the spinal cord.
Beck triad
A combination of three symptoms that characterize cardiac tamponade: elevated central venous pressure, muffled heart sounds, and hypotension.
closed pneumothorax
A collection of air or gas in the pleural space that causes the lung to collapse without exposing the pleural space to atmospheric pressure.
flail chest
A chest wall injury in which three or more adjacent ribs are fractures in two or more places.
hemothorax
The accumulation of blood and other fluid in the pleural space caused by bleeding from the lung parenchyma or damaged vessels.
open pneumothorax
A chest wall injury that exposes the pleural space to atmospheric pressure.
pulmonary contusion
Bruising of the lung tissue that results in rupture of the alveoli and interstitial edema.
tension pneumothorax
An accumulation of air or gas in the pleural cavity that can lead to collapse of the lung.
traumatic asphysxia
A severe crushing injury to the chest and abdomen that causes an increase in the intrathoracic pressure. The Increased pressure forces blood from the right side of the heart into the veins of the upper thorax, neck, and face.
hematuria
The abnormal presence of bood in the urine.
hemoperitoneum
The presence of extravasated blood in the peritoneal cavity.
Kehr sign
Pain in the left shoulder thought to be caused by referred pain secondary to irritation of the adjacent diaphragm.
peritonitis
Inflammation of the serous membrane that covers the abdominal wall.
DCAP-BTLS
An acronym for wound assessment: deformity, contusions, abrasion, penetrations or punctures, burns, tenderness, lacerations, and swelling.
false movement
An unnatural movement of an extremuty; usually associated with a fracture.
fracture
A break in the continuity of bone or cartilage.
joint dislocation
An injury that occurs when the normal articulating ends of two or more bones are displaced.
sprain
A partial tearing of a ligament caused by a sudden twisting or stretching of a joint beyond its normal range of motion.
strain
An injury to the muscle or its tendon from overextension or everexertion.
"Leaky capillary" syndrom occurs when the capillaries:
Permit protein-containing fluids to leak into the interstitial space.
How much normal saline would you expect to administer to a patient who has lost 500 mL of blood?
1500 mL.
You are called to examine a 27-year-old woman who fears that the laceration in her hand that had been sutured three days before is bscoming infected. The woman's hand is swollen and red. You advise her that:
Her hand is likey infected and she should go to the emergency department.
Severe hyperkalemia secondary to crush injuries could be managed intitially with:
Calcium.
A lucid interval is associated with:
Epidural hematoma.
The burn area confined to the patient's left anterior torso is red and wet. It is painful and has intact sensation. Blisters are beginning to form. These findings are consistent with which burn classification?
Second-degree, superficial partial-thickness burn.
You arrive on the scene of a house fir to find a 17-year-old male with partial thickness burns covering 60% of his body. He reportedly jumped from a second-story window to escape the flames. The fire began approximately 20 minutes ago. You find the patient to be hypotensive (90/p), leading you to suspect:
That another injury is causing his hypovolemia.
A patient has sustained circumferential burns to the chest. On arrival at the hospital he is difficult to ventilate. What treatment is likely to improve his ventilation?
Escharotomy through the burned tissue.
While you are treating a patient with a chemical burn to the eye, he informs you that he wears contact lenses. You should:
Remove the lenses regardless of discomfort or damage.
Your crew is called to the home of a 19-year-old female who was shocked while using an electric hedge trimmer that was plugged into a household outlet that was not properly grounded. On arrival, you find this patient to be in acute cardiopulmonary arrest. This patient's prognosis is:
Good, if provided with your immediate intervention.
How should you address management of this patient's airway?
Intubate at once, using C-spine precatutions.
After quite some time and effort, your crew is able to restore this patient's pulse; however her respiratory status is still tentative. In conferring with medical direction, you anticipate an order to:
Provide fluid resuscitation in an effort to ward off subsequent renal failure.
Central cord syndrome is characterized by:
Paralysis of the arms.
Anterior cord syndrome is characterized by:
Decreased pain and temperature sensation.
Brown-Sequard syndrome is characterized by:
Paralysis of the legs.