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15 Cards in this Set

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Wardrop's First Principle
User Equilibrium - Travelers will choose the path to minimize individual travel time (or cost)
Watdrop's 2nd Principle
System Optimal - Travelers will be assigned to minimize total network cost
All or Nothing

Limitations
Finds Fastest O/D Path

Does not consider congestion. Used when the roads are totally uncongested
4 step process
Trip Generation - Production and Attractions
Trip Distribution - # of trips that go from produtction to attraction zone
Mode Split - Transit or Roads
Traffic Assignment - Trips are assigned to the links in the highway network
Transportation System
Consists of fixed facilities, flow entities, and the control system which lets people and goods travel from A to B efficiently and in a timely manner
Types and Levels of Planning
Comprehensive: residential, commercial, industrial

System Plans: Sewers, Storm Drainage, water, solid waste

Area Plans: Central Business District, Civic and Cultural centers

Plans for Subsystem: water main

Site Plans: Library, Fire station
(1934)Federal-Aid Highway Act
(1956)Fed Highway Act
(1962)Fed-Aid HW Act Sect 134
Permitted states to use up to 1.5% of construction funds for planning and economic evaluation

Launched interstate HW SYS

3-C process: Eligibility for Fed HW aid in cities must be based on a continuing comprehensive planning process carried out cooperatively among states and local communities
(1973)Highway Act
(1975)FHWA + UMTA
Urban Mass Trans Admin
Coordination of Transit + HW had started w/ the 3-C process. Another 0.5% of funds was added to planning

Gave MPO the responsibility for preparing and comprehensive transportation plan for both HW and Transit modes w/ long range (10-20) and short range (5 yrs)
-start of Transportation Planning
(MPO) Metropoitan Planning Organization
Required to prepare comprehensive long range plan for transit and highway improvements
Urban Mobility
Rapid urban development implies increased quantity of passengers and freight moving within urban areas
-has been increasing drasticaly
The Walking Horsecar Era
(1800-1890)-ppl mostly walked
Cities less than 5k across
land use was mixed and density was high
City was compact and circular
The Electric Streetcar or Transit Era
Revolutionary - 1st Streetcar, electric rolly line opened in 1988 in richmond
3 times faster than foot
Cities spread outwards 20-30k along streetcar lines
-created irregular city shapes
Trolly corridors became commercial strips
Densities were reduced 50-100 ppl per acre
The Automobile Era
(1930- )Introduce in 1980s but only rich could afford
1920-Ford revolutionary assembply-line techniques
land developed in suberbs
transit companies ran into financial trouble
Commercial activity began to suberbanize
in short period auto was dominant mode of trans
Major Types of Urban Structure
Completely Motorized Network: Car-developed city w/ a limited centrality (modern american cities)

Weak center- Has down-town but many activies are located in the periphery(many american cities)

Strong Center- High density urban centers w/ well developed transit systems (europe and asia)

Traffic Limitation- Avg size cities that have implemented traffic control and model preference in there spacial structure. Center is dominated by public transit
Land Use
The process of organizing the use of lands and their resources to best meet peoples needs overtime, according to the lands capabilities