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19 Cards in this Set

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Diffusion
-Movement of molecules or ions by kinetic energy from their greater concentration to their lesser concentration (down a concentration gradient) until equilibrium is reached
-Can occur in solids, liquid, or gas, & across cell membranes
Osmosis
-Movement of WATER molecules by diffusion across a selectively permeable membrane
*Movement is from a hypotonic solution into a hypertonic solution
*Water moves until equilibrium is reached
Facilitated Diffusion
-Movement of a substance down its concentration gradient using a transmembrane protein for transport
Filtration
-Flow of a liquid (& solutes smaller than the pores) through the pores of a filter or plasma membrane
*Movement due to hydrostatic pressure
Active Transport
-Movement of a substance against its concentration gradient using a transmembrane protein & ATP for transport
Vesicular Transport
-Movement of a substance in to or out of a cell using vesicles that form at or fuse with the plasma membrane
Endocytosis
-Movement of substances into a cell via vesicles forming at the plasma membrane
Phagocytosis
-A type of endocytosis
-Specialized movement of solid particles into a cell by pseudopodia forming a vesicle around the particles
-"Cell eating"
Pinocytosis
-A type of endocytosis
- Drops of fluid brought into a cell by an invagination of the plasma membrane forming a small vesicle
-"Cell drinking"
Exocytosis
-Movement of substances out of a cell via fusion of secretory vesicles with the plasma membrane
Solvent
-Dissolving medium (dissolver)
*Typically a liquid
*Always water in living organisms
Solute
-Substances dissolved in a solvent
Concentration Gradient of a Solute
-When 2 different solute concentrations are on either side of a selectively permeable membrane
Hypotonic
-Solution with a lower solute concentration
*(hypo=deficient) *(tonos=stretching)
~Term used only when 2 solutions are being compared
Hypertonic
-Solution with a higher solute concentration
*(hyper=excessive)
*(tonos=stretching)
~Term used only when 2 solutions are being compared
Isotonic
-Solute concentration of the 2 solutions are equal
*(iso=same)
Crenated
-Shriveled with spiked edges
ex. RBC loses most of its water when put in a hypertonic solution
Hemolysis
-Swells & may eventually burst
ex. RBC gains a significant amount of water by being placed in a hypotonic solution
*(hemo=blood)
*(lysis=break down)
Salt content (NaCl) of blood
0.9%
*Same slat content as a physiological saline solution