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61 Cards in this Set

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Homeostasis
maintainence of a relatively stable internal environment by means of self-regulating mechanisms
Negative feedback
when a change in a controlled variable triggers a response that opposes the change, driving the variable in the opposite direction of the initial change
Internal environment/homeostasis
concentration of nutrient molecules

concentration of O2 and CO2

concentration of waste products

pH

concentration of H2O, salt, and other electrolytes

temp

volume and pressure
Body systems and homeostasis
circulatory digestive

respiratory urinary

skeletal muscular

integumentary nervous

endocrine reproductive

immune
Cell membrane function
physical isolation

regulation of exchange w/environment

sensitvity (rxn to envrionment)

structural support
Fluid mosaic model
a fluid lipid bilayer embedded with proteins
Phospholipid
phosphate

glycerol

fatty acids
Cholesterol
needed to keep the membrane from being too tight

too much can stiffen membrane
Phospholipid properties
forms the basic stx of the membrane

its hydrophobic interior serves a barrier to water soluble substances

gives fluidity to membrane
Types of membrane proteins
channels (for H2O soluble substances)

carriers (For specific substances)

receptors (specific)

membrane bound enzymes

cell adhesions
Impermeable substances
.
Membrane transport
.
Diffusion
.
Fick's Law
.
Osmosis
.
Osmolarity
# of particles
Tonicity
direction in which H2O moves
Permeable substances
.
Membrane carbohydrates
.
Chemical gradient
he difference in concentration across the membrane
Electrical gradient
the difference in charge between 2 adjacent areas
isotonic
a solution in which the concentration of electrolyte is equal to that in cells (ex RBC in .9% salt solution)
hypotonic
a solution in which the concentration of electrolyte is below that in cells (H2O enters-lysing), hyperosmotic
hypertonic
a solution in which the concentration of electrolyte is higher to that in cells (H2O out-shrinking), hypoosmotic
Donnan effect
.
Channels
.
Ligand gated channels
.
External ligands
.
Internal ligands
.
Mechanically gated
sound waves open up ion channels on the hair cells of the inner ear to create nerve impulses that the brain interprets as sound
Excitable cells
neurons and muscle cells
Voltage gated
channels in excitable cells the open or close with changes in charge across the plasma membrane
Na+ channels
.
K+ channels
.
Ca+2 channel
.
Carriers
.
Facillitated diffusion
.
Uniport carrier
transports one thing across membrane
symport carrier
transports 2 things, in the same direction, across membrane
antiport carrier
transports 2 things, in opposite directions, across the membrane
Na+/K+ ATPase
.
active transport
.
internal conc"
.0001mM
Ca+2 external environment
10 mM
H+/K+ ATPase (proton pump)
.
Ca+2
ATPase
.
ABC transporters
.
ABC transporter examples
.
Indirect active transport
uses the energy already stored in the gradient of a directly pumped ion
KATP
channel
involved in glucose regulation and sulfonylurea therapy (active transporter)
Na+/Glucose transporter
.
Resting membrane potential
.
Membrane potential ions
.
ions
.
Equilibrium potential (E)
when the conc. gradient is exactly counterbalanced by the electrical grad.(no net movement of ion)
Nernst equation
.
Ca+2 external environment
10 mM
Ca+2
internal conc
.0001mM
antiport carrier
transports 2 things, in opposite directions, across the membrane
symport carrier
transports 2 things, in the same direction, across membrane
uniport carrier
transports one thing across membrane