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99 Cards in this Set

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Florence Nightingale
Crimean War
Reduce mortality rate
Clara Barton
Organized American Red Cross in 1882
Dorthea Dix
Efforts with mentally ill and prisons
Resulted in state psychiatric hospitals and improved treatment
Superintendent of Women Nurses for All Military Hospitals in Civil War
Harriet Ross Tubman
Abolitionist, "underground railroad"
Worked with Clara Barton
Sojourner Truth
Slave that nursed Union soldiers
Continued in Freedmen's Relief Assistance after war
Isabel Hampton Robb
Made radical nurse education changes
Changed work hours
Mary Breckinridge
After WWI established the FNS (Frontier Nursing Service)
First Midwifery training school in US
Mildred Montag
Community College Education for Nursing
Established the Associate Degree for nursing
1959
Lavinia Dock
Nursing leader and women's rights activist
Worked on Constitutional Right to Vote for women
Henry Street Settlement with Wald and Brewster
Virginia Henderson
Developmental Model of Nursing
Nursing is to guide pt to independence
Mary Mahoney
First AA nurse
Hildegard Peplau
described nurse-client relationship
Melinda Ann Richards
First trained nurse in america
Margaret Sanger
First birthcontrol clinic in America.
Battled for dissemination of birth control
Lillian Wald
Established the Henry Street Settlement. Founder of Public Health Nursing
Luther Christman
American Assembly for Men in Nursing
St. Vincent de Paul
Sisters of Charity
1633
Wilma Scott Heide
Founder of NOW
Nurse and feminist
C. McCauley
Sisters of Mercy
Martha Rogers
Science of Unitary Human Beings
M. Leininger
Cultural Care and Diversity Theory
Dorothea Orem
Self-Care Theory
Socialization
Life-long process by which people become functioning participants of a society or a group
Socialization of Nursing Profession
Is a process whereby the norms and values are internalized into the nurse's own behavior and self-concept.
Benner's Five Stages of Practice/Levels of Worker
-Novice
-Advanced Beginner
-Competent
-Proficient
-Expert
Bolton Act of 1943
Established the Cadet Nurse Corps. to address the nursing shortage of WWII.
First federal program to subsidize education for the nursing study.
Commitment to military or civilian service was required for the duration of the war.
ANA Position Paper on Nursing Education
Wants RN to be BSN and LPN to be ASN
Factors that increased the rise in ADN programs
1) Rise of 2 year community colleges
2) Cadet Nursing Program
3) Studies on nursing education in the US
4) Nursing Shortage
NLNAC vs. CCNE
NLNAC : National League for Nursing Accrediting Commission
Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education
NLNAC is for all types of nursing education programs (Recognized by the US Dept or Education as the accrediting body)
CCNE ensures the quality and integrity of bacc. and graduate degree education programs
Factors influencing the current nursing system
1. Social
2. Economic
3. Educational
4. Development of health care legislation and policy
Cost containment
Preventative services
Rationing of health care
HMOs
Community-based care
Managed care
Capitation
Health care financing
Fee-for-service Payment
1. Third party reimbursement
2. Direct Pay
3. IPA/ independent private associations
4.PPOs/ Preferred Provider Organizations
Gov. Programs
Medicare
Medicaid
SSI
HRSA
VA
Prospective payment
a fixed reimbursement amount for all care required for a particular surgical procedure, illness for acuity category-designed to provide hospitals with an incentive to contain costs
DRG and RUG
Diagnosis-related groups
group of patients classified for measuring a hospital's delivery of care.
Classification is based on the following variables : primary and secondary diagnosis, primary and secondary procedures, age and length of stay
Resource Utilization Groups
Categories used to determine prospective payment for nursing home clients based on MDS form
MDS form
minimum data set
Certification
meeting the standards of a state governmental agency
Accreditation
Meeting the standards of a nongovernmental agency
Deemed status
medicare/caid has granted several nongovernmental agencies.
that means the standards of the agency are equal or exceed the medicare standard are not required to pursue additional medicare certification
JCAHO
Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations
Hospitals, Nursing Homes, and other organizations
CHAP
Community Health Accreditation Program
Voluntary accreditation for community and home health agencies

Deemed status
NCQA
National Community for Quality Assurance
reviews and evaluates HMOs
OBRA 1987
Contained regulations that, for the first time, mandated nursing homes be regulated for funding.
also that people had to be certified to be assistance
Tri-council for nursing
is a collaborative effort of the ANA, NLN and AONE, and AACN
Four levels of knowing
1) Empirical
2) Aesthetic
3) Personal
4) Ethical
Statutory Law
A statute is a rule or formal reguation established by government legislative authority, such as Congress, the state legislature, city council that appears in writing
Punishable by law
Published in codes
Includes both constitutional and enacted laws
Constitutional Law
part of statutory law
greatest authority with enacted law the next
Common Law
Common usage, custom and judicial law
Fluid and changes over time
Civil law vs Criminal law
Criminal law addresses the general welfare of the public.
A violation is a crime and is prosecuted by the gov.

Civil law regulates conduct between private individuals or businesses and is enforced through damages or monetary compensation
Torts
civil wrongs committed by one person against another person or their property
Malpractice
professional negligence
Elements of Malpractice
1. Harm to an individual
2. Beach of duty
3. Duty to act
4. Cause of harm is the result of a breach of duty
Contracts
an agreement between two individuals especially one that is written and enforceable by law
contracts with patients are usually implied
Elements of a valid contract
Preamble
Termination clause
Preamble
an explanation or summary of the contract
Termination Clause
a termination cluase is a portion of a contract that explains the rights of the parties to terminate, or cancel their contract
Respondeat Superior
the legal principle that allows the court to hold the employer responsible for the actions of the employee when performing services for the organization
Practice standards
standardized specifications developed through the process
Grievance
a real or imagined feeling of personal injustice that an employee has about the employment relationship.
Components of informed consent
1. disclosure
2. comprehension
3. competence
4. voluntariness
Professional Liability
Nursing liability
Institutional liability
Supervisor liability
States that allow Physician Assisted Suicide
Oregon 1994
Washington 2008
Montana 2009
CAPTA
Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (1974)
Defines the parameters under which state laws must provide regulations mandating child abuse by professionals
Statutory Laws
ADA Act of 1990
Patient Self-Determination Act
(PSDA) 1990
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)
Freedom of Information Act
Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (1987)
FMLA (1993)
OSHA (1970)
Legal process of a lawsuit
Discovery
Complaint
Consumer Rights
AHA, Patient Care Partnership
Informed Consent
Advanced directives
Autonomy/right to self- determination
HIPAA
Parentalism
Teleological/utilitarian theories
consequence based
Triage and public health policy
Deontological theories
Principle-based
Kant
Rightness or wrongness of action depends on the moral significance of the action
Deontology
Principles guide actions. In all situations, the rules are followed
Caring theories
relationship based
(Peplau, Watson)
Non-malfeasance
prohibits deliberate harm and demands weighing risks with the benefits
Centralized structure
a few individuals are set up to make majority of decisions
Decentralized
when the decision making involves a number of individuals and individual employees are responsible for making decisions in areas in which they have expertise
Case method
first system for delivery nursing care
not case management
nurse only worked for one pt.
Primary nursing
responsible for initiating and updating the nursing care plan, patient teaching, and discharge planning
benefits include continuity of care
Team nursing
developed in the 1950s
team leader has overall responsibility
Functional Nursing
emerged in the 1930s
allowed for the care of greater number of pts
industrial type model
Case management
refers to a system in which health care services are controlled and monitored carefully to ensure care is provided
Partnership model
RN with a skilled/technical assistant
Differentiated practice
the practice of structuring nursing roles on the basis of education, experience and competence
Lewin's theory of change
1. Unfreezing
2. Moving
3. Refreezing
Acute Care
Refers to type of care and length of stay
Acuity
when used to describe a client's condition refers to the seriousness and rate of change that is occurring.
Serious, subject to rapid detrioration and require highly skilled patient care
Long-term Acute Care
Clients with wounds that need specialized care, pts on extended vent support, dialysis while remaining unstable,
Sub-Acute Care
Types of service that may be offered in a special unit of a hospital (transitional care/step down)
Skilled Nursing Care
rehab services, observation and assessment of client conditions
Custodial Care
refers to care focused on meeting deficits of ADL's.
Hospice Care
Provides medical, nursing, social work, spiritual work, bereavement counseling and a variety of therapies to individuals who are dying and their families
Rehabilitation Care
designed to support restoration of function and ability to complete ADL's or engage in occupation
Ambulatory Care
Outpatient care
Home Health Care
nursing care, therapies, personal assistance and household chores
Purpose of Primary Care
Entry into system
Health maintenance
Long-term care
Chronic care
Treatment of temporary non-incapacitating care
Purpose of Secondary Care
Prevention of disease complications
Purpose of Tertiary are
Rehabilitation
Long-term care
Primary organization/unit
Ambulatory care centers
Physician's offices
PPOs
Nursing center/urgent care center
HMOs
Independent provider organizations
School health clinics
Secondary organization/unit
Home healthcare
Ambulatory care centers
Nursing centers
Tertiary organization/unit
Home healthcare
Long-term care
Rehab centers
Skilled nursing
Assisted living/retirement centers
Services of general/community hospital
med/surg, OB, ER, and diagnostic services
Tertiary Care
Referral centers for clients w/complex or unusual health problems such as level 1, burns, bone marrow transplant, and research based oncology