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15 Cards in this Set

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Franciscans
The term Franciscan is used to refer to those in Roman Catholic religious orders which follow a body of regulations known as "The rule of St. Francis",[1] or a member of one of these orders. There are also small Old Catholic and Protestan

A sermon which Francis heard in 1209 on Mt 10:9 made such an impression on him that he decided to devote himself wholly to a life of apostolic poverty
Ibn Sina/Avicenna
Also known as Avicenna, born 980, dead 1037) was a Persian (Tājīk)[2][3][4] physician, philosopher, and scientist. Avicenna was born around 980 (370 AH) in Afshana near Bukhara[5] in Persia (now part of Uzbekistan) and died in 1037 (428 AH) in Hamadan (Iran).[1]

He authored some 450 books on a wide range of subjects, many of which concentrated on philosophy and medicine. His most famous works are The Book of Healing and The Canon of Medicine, which was for almost five centuries a standard medical text at many European universities. Avicenna's medical system was based on that of Galen which he combined with Aristotelian metaphysics as well as traditional Persian and Arab lore.
Pope Gregory VII
On the death of Alexander II (April 21, 1073), Hildebrand became pope and took the name of Gregory VII.

Pope Gregory VII (c. 1020/1025 – May 25, 1085), born Hildebrand of Soana (Italian: Ildebrando di Soana) was papacy from April 22, 1073 until his death.

One of the great reforming popes, Gregory is perhaps best known for the part he played in the Investiture Controversy, which pitted him against Emperor Henry IV.
Caroline script
Caroline minuscule script was adopted in England in the mid-tenth century in imitation of Continental usage. A badge of ecclesiastical reform, it was practised in Benedictine scriptoria but was also taken up by members of the royal writing office; the chancery occupied an important place in the pioneering of calligraphic fashions. During its approximately two-century history in England, Caroline script developed a number of forms, in part reflecting different tendencies within the Reform-cause. The Rule of St Benedict was focal for this movement.
In the aftermath of the final Scandinavian conquest of England (AD1016) a Canterbury master-scribe created the form of Caroline writing which was to become a mark of Englishness and outlive the Norman Conquest. In the closing chapter its inventor's career is discussed and his achievement assessed. This volume offers analysis of manuscript evidence as a basis for the cultural and ecclesiastical history of late Anglo-Saxon England.

http://www.boydell.co.uk/51153232.HTM
The Pyxis of al-Mughira
the picture of the casket/box

given to prince on 18th birthday

sybly of exile the palm trees
The Five Pillars
The Five Pillars of Islam is the term given to "the five duties incumbent on every Muslim". These duties are shahadah (profession of faith), salah (ritual prayer), zakat (alms tax), sawm (fasting during Ramadan), and Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca).[1]
Insula and the paterfamilias
imge of house aprt....
Justinian
the image of him depicting his pwers.... the military lawyers and the church and he is in the middle holding the communin bread
Henry II of England
Henry II of England (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, and as King of England (1154–1189) and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland, eastern Ireland, and western France. His sobriquets include "Curt Mantle" (because of the practical short cloaks he wore), "Fitz Empress", and sometimes "The Lion of Justice", which had also applied to his grandfather Henry I. He ranks as the first of the Plantagenet or Angevin Kings.

Following the disputed reign of King Stephen, Henry's reign saw efficient consolidation. Henry II has acquired a reputation as one of England's greatest medieval kings.

Prior to coming to the throne he already controlled Normandy, Aquitaine, Gascony and Anjou on the continent, Anjou and Normandy were held through paternal heritance and Aquitaine/Gascony through wedding with Eleanor of Aquitaine on 18 May 1152. He subsequently became king of England in 1154 replacing King Stephen. He thus effectively became more powerful than the king of France — with an empire (the Angevin Empire) that stretched from the Solway Firth almost to the Mediterranean and from the Somme to the Pyrenees. As king, he would make Ireland a part of his vast domain.
Danse macabre
La Danse Macabre, also called Dance of death, La Danza Macabra, or Totentanz, is a late-medieval allegory on the universality of death: no matter one's station in life, the dance of death unites all. La Danse Macabre consists of the personified death leading a row of dancing figures from all walks of life to the grave—typically with an emperor, king, pope, monk, youngster, beautiful girl, all skeletal. They were produced under the impact of the Black Death, reminding people of how fragile their lives were and how vain the glories of earthly life were.[1] Its origins are postulated from illustrated sermon texts; the earliest artistic examples are in a cemetery in Paris from 1424.
Doctrine of the Trinity
In Christianity, the doctrine of the Trinity states that God is one being who exists, simultaneously and eternally, as a mutual indwelling of three persons: the Father, the Son (incarnate as Jesus of Nazareth), and the Holy Spirit. Since the 4th century, in both Eastern and Western Christianity, this doctrine has been stated as "three persons in one God," all three of whom, as distinct and co-eternal persons, are of one indivisible Divine essence, a simple being. Supporting the doctrine of the Trinity is known as Trinitarianism. The majority of Christians are Trinitarian, and regard belief in the Trinity as a test of orthodoxy. Opposing, nontrinitarian positions that are held by some groups include Binitarianism (two deities/persons/aspects), Unitarianism (one deity/person/aspect), the Godhead (Latter Day Saints) (three separate beings) and Modalism (Oneness).
“The Elect”
Elect is an English word that has been used to translate the original Hebrew and Greek words of The Bible which describe those who have been, or will be, elected, or chosen by God for a purpose: to become the "first fruits" of salvation. They will be resurrected, or transformed if alive that day, into immortal spirit beings at The Return Of Jesus Christ. They will then reign with Him for the 1,000 years (the "Millennium"), after which the resurrection of the rest of humanity will occur (Revelation 20:4-6).
Jacquerie
The Jacquerie was a popular revolt in late medieval Europe that took place in northern France in 1358, during the Hundred Years' War. The revolt centered in the Oise valley north of Paris. This rebellion was known as the Jacquerie after its peasant revolutionary leader Guillaume Cale, popularly known as Jacques Bonhomme ("Jack Goodfellow") or Callet. The word "Jacquerie" later became a synonym for French peasant uprisings.

After the capture of the French King John II the Good by the English during the Battle of Poitiers in 1356, power in France devolved to the States General, Charles the Bad, King of Navarre, and John's son, the Dauphin, Charles V. However, the States General were too divided to provide effective government and the disputes between the two rulers provided disunity amongst the nobles. To secure their rights, the French privileged classes, the nobility, the merchant elite, and the clergy, forced the peasantry to pay ever-increasing taxes (for example, the taille) and to repair their war-damaged properties without compensation.
Zoroastrianism
Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). Mazdaism is the religion that acknowledges the divine authority of Ahura Mazda, proclaimed by Zoroaster to be the one uncreated Creator of all (God).

As demonstrated by Zoroastrian creed and articles of faith, the two terms are effectively synonymous. In a declaration of the creed — the Fravarānē — the adherent states: "…I profess myself a devotee of Mazda, a follower of Zarathustra." (Yasna 12.2, 12.8)

Zoroastrianism was once the dominant religion of much of Greater Iran. As of 2007 the faith has dwindled to very small numbers; many sources suggest that it is practiced by fewer than 200,000 worldwide,[1] with its largest centers in India and Iran.
The Creation of Adam
The Creation of Adam is a fresco on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, painted by Michelangelo Buonarroti circa 1511. It illustrates the Biblical story from the Book of Genesis in which God the Father breathes life into Adam, the first man. Chronologically the fourth in the series of panels depicting episodes from Genesis on the Sistine ceiling, it was among the last to be completed. It is arguably one of the most famous and most appreciated images in the world.

God is depicted as an elderly bearded man wrapped in a swirling cloak that he shares with some cherubim. His left arm is wrapped around a female figure, normally interpreted as Eve, who is not yet created and, figuratively, waits in heaven to be given an earthly form. God's right arm is outstretched to impart the spark of life from his own finger into that of Adam, whose left arm is extended in a pose mirroring God's. Famously, Adam's finger and God's finger are separated by a slight distance.

The composition is obviously artistic and not literal, as Adam is capable of reaching out to God even before he has actually been given "life." For this same reason, Eve is visually depicted prior to her own creation. The inclusion of Eve has led some people to believe the female figure must be Adam's mythical first wife, Lilith, although Lilith was also created after Adam.