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41 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Looking at a cross section of the spinal chord, the dark areas are? Light?
Axon tracks, and light areas are cell bodies
Motor tracts
Descending, and the information is somatotopically organized
What is the division of descending motor systems
Lateral and medial
Lateral motor systems
Travel in the lateral columns of the white matter of spinal cord
Where do the axons of lateral motor system terminate
They terminate on lateral ventral horn motor neurons and interneurons, and they control the movement of distal muscles like arms, legs, feet, and hand. They provide rapid and dexterous movements at an individual joints and digits
What are the two divisions of lateral tracts
Corticospinal and rubrospinal
What is the most clinically important
What is rubrospinal
This red nucleus, it is in the midbrain (magnocellular pathway) and ↑ the flexor tone in the upper extremities, the view that we normally see it in is C6, C7 and this is because we can see the whole spinal chord
Where do we get hyperreflexia
We get in the lateral systems
What does the medial system do
It does the trunk (axial and girdle muscles), they are involved in the postural tone, balance, orienting movements of the head and neck, automatic gait related movements, they descend ipsilaterally and terminate on the interneuron and it influences the axial muscles bilaterally, so that if one side is messed up there is a back up
Where does the medial pathway travel
It travels in the anteromedial columns of the spinal chord and they synapse on the medial ventral horn MN and interneurons
How many tracts does the Medial motor system has
4, anterior (ventral) Corticospinal, vstibulospinal (VST), reticulospinal, and tectospinal
What is the anterior corticospinal tract
It doesn’t cross the midline, and allows bilateral controls of axial and girdle muscles
What is VST
These are 2 tracts from the vestibular nuclei, lateral= runs the length of spinal chord and controls the extensor tone and medial= ends at he cervical level and controls the head and neck
What is reticulospinal
Automatic posture and gait movements there is one that originates in pontine reticular formation and is called medial reticulospinal tract and the other originated in the medullary reticular formation and is called lateral reticulospinal tract
What is the tectospinal tract
It ends in the cervical cord and provides coordination of head and eye movements
How many layers are there in the cortex
What is the major input layer
What is the major output layer
Weakness of one side of the body
No movement on one side of the body
No movement of the leg
Weakness or no movement of the face muscles
Weakness in both legs
Weakness of one arm or leg
Facial diplegia
Symmetrical facial weakness
Quad or tetraplegia
Paralysis of all 4 limbs
What is a mechanical or traumatic spinal cord injury
Anything that causes contusion, compression, disc herniation, and degenerative disorder of the vertebral bones
What if the spinal cord is hemisected
Get Brown-Sequard, mainly due to penetrating injury like stab wound, this causes ipsilateral loss of UMN, and ipsilateral loss of vibration sense, joint position and proprioception, sense of fine touch and it causes contralateral loss of pain and temperature, itch and crude touch
What If there is a vascular defect
This usually happens in the anterior spinal artery, posterior occlusion, watershed infarct, and epidural hematoma
What is the main effect of anterior spinal artery infarct
Damage to the anterolateral system (no temp or pain below the lesion bilaterally) and ventral horn cells (LMN signs) also incontinence is common since the descending pathways tend to be more ventral in the spinal chord
What happens with dorsal spinal a. occlusion
Loss of proprioception in the leg muscles
What are the effects of nutritional deficiency
Vitamin B12, it is required for the formation of myelin and lack of cobalamin (not in fruits and vegetables) causes pernicious anemia
What happens if there is no intrinsic factor
There is numbness in finger and hands and toes (paresthesias)
Where is the degeneration of myelin the greatest (due to ↓ vit-b12)
It is greatest in dorsal columns than it is in corticospinal tract
Due to nutritious deficiency, what happens if there is degeneration of cerebral white matter
What is infectious myelitis
It is inflammation of the spinal cord, could be viral, including HIV, Lyme disease, tertiary syphilis, and polio and LMN are predominantly effected
What is inflammatory myelitis
Multiple sclerosis, (AI affects the CNS myelin), Lupus, post infectious myelitis and this one basically effects the ALS
What are some of the neoplasms
Epidural metastasis, and schwannoma
What are some of the degenerative and developmental disorders
Spina bifida, syringiomyelia, and ALS (lou gherrig’s diseases) these can have UMN or LMN or both involved
What is Guillean Barr syndrome
It is an acute inflammatory demyelinating poly neuropathy, it is an immune mediated demyelination of peripheral nerves usually 1-2 weeks following a viral illness