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73 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Constructional apraxia is caused by damage to the:
parietal lobe

Constructional apraxia is characterized by an inability to copy or draw figures or to arrange blocks in a pattern.

Apraxia involves an inability to perform skilled movements that are not due to muscle weakness, sensory loss, general intellectual deterioration, or lack of cooperation. Most forms of apraxia (including constructional apraxia) are caused by damage to the parietal lobe.
As the result of a brain tumor,‭ ‬Alma A.‭ ‬is no longer able to recognize her family members or friends by looking at their faces.‭ ‬Alma’s condition is known as:

Alma is unable to recognize familiar faces, a condition that is caused by damage to certain areas of the occipital and temporal lobes.

Prosopagnosia is a type of visual agnosia that involves an inability to recognize familiar faces, often including one’s own face.

Anosognosia is the inability to recognize (or the denial of) one’s own neurological symptoms.
As defined in DSM-IV-TR,‭ ‬postconcussional disorder‭ (‬syndrome‭) ‬is characterized by which of the following symptoms‭?
headache,‭ ‬vertigo or dizziness,‭ ‬sleep disturbances,‭ ‬and affective lability

Postconcussional disorder is included in the DSM-IV-TR with “Criteria Sets and Axes Provided for Further Study.”

A diagnosis of postconcussional disorder requires a history of closed head trauma that caused significant cerebral concussion, disturbances in attention or memory, and at least three characteristic symptoms that have persisted for at least three months. The characteristic symptoms include those listed in this answer. Other symptoms are becoming fatigued easily, apathy or reduced spontaneity, and changes in personality.

diaphoresis,‭ ‬dysphagia,‭ ‬confusion,‭ ‬and tachycardia are characteristic symptoms of neuroleptic malignant syndrome.

slurred speech,‭ ‬incoordination,‭ ‬nystagmus,‭ ‬and impaired memory are symptoms of alcohol intoxication.

dysphoria,‭ ‬nausea and vomiting,‭ ‬diarrhea,‭ ‬and insomnia are characteristic symptoms of opioid withdrawal.
According to Schachter and Singer‭ (‬1962‭)‬,‭ ‬a person’s subjective emotional response to an event:
depends on a combination of the person’s physical reaction to and cognitive interpretation of the event.

The theories of emotion differ with regard to the degree to which they emphasize the role of peripheral and central factors.

According to Schachter and Singer’s (1962) two-factor theory, subjective emotional experience is the consequence of a combination of physical arousal and cognitive interpretation of that arousal and the context in which it occurs.

James-Lange theory of emotion is determined entirely by the person’s physiological reaction to the event, which stresses the importance of peripheral factors.

Cannon-Bard theory of emotions depends primarily on the simultaneous activation of certain peripheral and brain mechanisms.
Tourette’s syndrome has been most consistently linked to abnormalities in which of the following structures of the brain‭?
basal ganglia

The basal ganglia are involved in the control of movement and include the corpus striatum, caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus. Basal ganglia dysfunction has been implicated in a number of disorders including Tourette’s syndrome, ADHD, OCD, and schizophrenia.
Prospective memory is the ability to remember to execute an intended act in the future and is believed to be supported by activity in which of the following areas of the brain‭?
prefrontal cortex

A number of brain regions and structures are involved in memory including the hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus, basal ganglia, and prefrontal cortex.

Areas in the prefrontal cortex play an important role in several aspects of memory including prospective, episodic, and working memory.

The basal ganglia play a role in procedural and implicit memory.

The raphe nuclei are located in the reticular formation and play a role in sleep and arousal that may be involved in depression.
The neurotransmitter glutamate is believed to be responsible for:
the effects of alcohol on cognitive abilities.

Glutamate plays a role in learning and memory and, more specifically, in long-term potentiation which is believed to mediate the formation of long-term memories.

Alcohol alters glutamate levels in the brain, which can cause memory impairment and may play a role in alcohol-related blackouts.

GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter; and alcohol enhances GABA activity which may contribute to the increased sociability associated with alcohol consumption.

Serotonin is believed to be involved in alcohol craving.
One of the characteristic symptoms of Kluver-Bucy syndrome is agnosia,‭ ‬which involves:
an inability to recognize familiar objects.

Note that this question is asking specifically about agnosia, not the Kluver-Bucy syndrome.

Agnosia (“psychic blindness”) is a characteristic symptom of Kluver-Bucy syndrome and involves an inability to recognize or interpret visual stimuli. Other symptoms of Kluver-Bucy syndrome include reduced fear, increased docility, compulsive oral behaviors, markedly different dietary habits, and hypersexuality.
The hypothalamus is believed to be involved in all of the following functions EXCEPT:
vision and audition

The hypothalamus mediates a wide range of autonomic, endocrine, and behavioral functions including emotional states, the sleep-wake cycle, hunger and thirst, sexual behavior and reproduction, and temperature. However, it is not involved in vision or audition.
For the assessment of Huntington's disease,‭ ‬magnetic resonance imaging‭ (‬MRI‭) ‬is:
useful for detecting volume reduction in the basal ganglia,‭ ‬even in some asymptomatic individuals.

Knowing that Huntington's disease is caused by abnormalities in the basal ganglia would have helped you identify the correct answer to this question.

Structural and functional brain imaging techniques have both been used to assess brain pathology related to Huntington's disease. There is evidence that MRI (a structural technique) can identify reduced volume in the basal ganglia among genetically at-risk individuals who have not yet exhibited overt symptoms of the disorder.
MRI (hint - MS)
Mri is a Structural technique
According to Weber's law,‭ ‬the more intense a stimulus,‭ ‬the greater the increase in stimulus intensity required for the increase to be perceived.‭ ‬In other words,‭ ‬Weber's law deals with:

(hint - WJND radio station that you can barely hear)
just noticeable differences

Psychophysics is the study of the relationship between physical stimulus magnitudes and their corresponding psychological sensations. There are several psychophysical laws that you should be familiar with for the exam.

A just noticeable difference is the minimum difference in stimulus intensity required for an individual to notice a difference from the previous intensity. For instance, if you are in a room lit by a 120 watt light bulb, and you don't notice a difference in brightness until the wattage is increased to 130, the just noticeable difference is 10 watts. Weber's law states that the more intense a stimulus, the greater the increase in stimulus intensity must be for the increase to be noticed.
Damage to the temporal lobe is most likely to result in:

(hint - TM - in trancendental meditation you temporarily lose your memory)
memory loss

The temporal lobe plays an important role in several important functions including auditory sensation and perception, language comprehension, and long-term memory.

Damage to the dominant temporal lobe may cause verbal memory loss, while damage to the nondominant temporal lobe may produce nonverbal memory loss.
A person with Wernicke's aphasia has impaired language comprehension and:
fluent but unintelligible speech.

Wernicke's aphasia is characterized by a disruption in the ability to produce and comprehend language.

People with Wernicke's aphasia have fluent speech, but their speech is unintelligible because it contains multiple errors including sound and word substitutions.
Long-term potentiation is believed to play a critical role in which of the following‭?

hint - LTP - Learning (and memory)
learning and memory

Long-term potentiation (LTP) is a physiological process that involves physical modification of nerve synapses, especially at glutamate receptors in the hippocampus.

LTP is a widely accepted model for the synaptic changes that underlie learning and memory.
Oversecretion of‭ ________‬_ by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis has been linked to depression.

The structures of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis interact and regulate a number of important functions including the body’s reaction to stress and the activities of the immune system. Recently, the HPA axis has also been linked to mood and anxiety disorders.

Secretion of cortisol, a stress hormone, by the adrenal gland is influenced by the activity of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. Although cortisol plays an important role in helping the body respond to stress, recent research has found that chronic excessive cortisol levels are associated with disturbances in sleep, decreased appetite, a reduced sex drive, and other symptoms of depression.

Abnormalities in melatonin have been linked to seasonal affective disorder but not to depression more generally. In addition, melatonin is secreted by the pineal gland.
Gerstmann’s syndrome
Agraphia,‭ ‬acalculia,‭ ‬finger agnosia,‭ ‬and right-left confusion are symptoms of Gerstmann's Syndrome, caused by damage to the left (dominant) angular gyrus, which is located at the point of convergence of the parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes.
primary functions of brain structures:
The corpus callosum is the largest band of fibers connecting the two hemispheres of the brain. Abnormalities in corpus callosum functioning have been linked to several disorders including dyslexia, ADHD, Tourette's syndrome, and schizophrenia.

The arcuate fasciculus connects Wernicke’s and Broca’s areas and carries signals related to the production and comprehension of language.

The cingulate gyrus is part of the limbic system and is believed to be responsible for focusing attention on emotionally significant events, linking sensory input to emotions, mediating emotional reactions to pain, and regulating aggressive behavior.

The globus pallidus is part of the basal ganglia and is involved in motor control.
Which of the following is an example of sexual dimorphism‭?
The hypothalamus,‭ ‬corpus callosum,‭ ‬and several other regions of the human brain exhibit consistent gender-related differences in structure and activity.

Sexual dimorphism refers to systematic gender-related differences in physical characteristics. Recent research has confirmed that certain structures in the brain are sexually dimorphic.

The hypothalamus is one of the structures of the human brain that is sexually dimorphic. For example, the size of the hypothalamus and its secretion of growth hormone differs for males and females.

definiton from medical dictionary-"The physical differences between male and female individuals that arise as a consequence of sexual maturation, including the secondary sex characteristics."
The most common cause of cerebral palsy is:
brain damage during fetal development.

Cerebral palsy includes a number of neurological disorders that permanently impair the ability to control voluntary muscle movements. In most cases of cerebral palsy, the exact cause is unknown.

Cerebral palsy is the result of brain damage, and, in the majority of cases, the damage occurs prior to birth. One cause of the damage is a lack of oxygen (asphyxia) prior to birth or during the birth process. Other possible causes include exposure to infections, head injury, intracranial hemorrhage, and genetic mutations.
L-dopa is used to alleviate the symptoms of:
Parkinson's Disease

L-dopa (levodopa) is a precursor to dopamine.

Parkinson's disease is due to deficiencies of dopamine in certain areas of the brain; and administering L-dopa increases dopamine levels and alleviates the symptoms of the disorder, especially in its initial stages.
Intense hunger,‭ ‬headaches,‭ ‬anxiety,‭ ‬dizziness,‭ ‬weakness,‭ ‬heart palpitations,‭ ‬and confusion are symptoms of which of the following endocrine disorders‭?

The endocrine disorders produce a combination of physical and neuropsychiatric symptoms.

The symptoms described in this question are characteristic of hypoglycemia (low blood sugar), which has several causes including excessive production of insulin by the pancreas.
endocrine disorders
The endocrine disorders produce a combination of physical and neuropsychiatric symptoms.

Hyperthyroidism is characterized by heat intolerance, tachycardia, hyperactive reflexes, distractibility, and impaired problem-solving.

Symptoms of hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) include polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia, fatigue, weight loss, and recurrent infections.

Hypothyroidism is characterized by cold intolerance, bradycardia, fatigue, mental slowing, and decreased libido.

Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) has several causes including excessive production of insulin by the pancreas.
Early memory loss associated with Alzheimer's dementia is believed to be caused by deterioration of neurons in the hippocampus that secrete:

For the exam, you should be familiar with the functions that have been associated with the neurotransmitters listed in the answers to this question.

Acetylcholine (ACh) mediates motor functions as well as memory processes, and decreased levels of ACh in the hippocampus have been linked to the memory loss associated Alzheimer’s dementia.
functions of neurotransmitters
GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter. It is believed to play a role in anxiety, sleep, and eating disorders and is affected by CNS depressants.

Acetylcholine (ACh) mediates motor functions as well as memory processes, and decreased levels of ACh in the hippocampus have been linked to the memory loss associated Alzheimer’s dementia.

Serotonin has been linked to a variety of functions including memory. Serotonin is believed to contribute to some symptoms of Alzheimers including sensory disturbances, mood swings, and sleep disruption.

Glycine plays a role in spinal reflexes and motor behavior.
Huntington’s disease is an:
autosomnal dominant disorder

Huntington’s disease is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder that is transmitted by a single dominant gene.

a. CORRECT The term “autosome” refers to a chromosome that is not an X or Y sex chromosome. Huntington’s disease is transmitted by a single dominant autosomal chromosome.
Damage to the hippocampus is most likely to interfere with the ability to:
The hippocampus is involved in memory consolidation.

The research has shown that the hippocampus is involved in explicit (conscious) memory and, more specifically, in transferring explicit memories from short- to long-term memory.
‭_________________ ‬has been used as a pharmacologic model for schizophrenia because drugs that alleviate the former also reduce the symptoms of the latter.
amphetamine psychosis

The research has identified several similarities between the effects of amphetamines and the symptoms of schizophrenia.

Research on amphetamine psychosis has provided support for the dopamine hypothesis for schizophrenia: First, amphetamines exert their effects by altering dopamine activity. Second, a high dose of amphetamine produces symptoms similar to those associated with schizophrenia, and amphetamines exacerbate the symptoms of schizophrenia. Third, drugs that reduce dopamine levels reduce the symptoms of both amphetamine psychosis and schizophrenia.
Which of the following is consistent with the predictions of the James-Lange theory‭?
I''m trembling,‭ ‬so I must be scared.

The James-Lange theory is a peripheralist theory of emotion.

According to the James-Lange theory, the psychological experience of emotion follows bodily responses to external stimuli.

mnemonic - James Lang is trembling so he must be scared

Cannon-Bard - We have emotions and as a result feel physiological effects.

mnemonic - I see a cannon. I feel afraid. I tense in readiness to run away.

(Bard is a musician/poet)
After the image of an object is projected exclusively to Olivia O.‭’‬s left visual field‭ (‬right hemisphere‭)‬,‭ ‬Olivia is unable to verbally name the object but can pick the object out of a group of objects hidden from view with her left hand.‭ ‬Damage to which of the following would explain this phenomenon‭?
corpus collosum

Olivia’s behavior demonstrates the lateralization of function in the brain. Olivia’s inability to verbally name the object demonstrates that its name was not transferred from her right to left hemisphere (which controls language). However, her ability to select the object with her left hand (which is controlled by the right hemisphere) demonstrates that her recognition of the object was not impaired.

The corpus callosum is the major bundle of fibers that connects the right and left hemispheres of the brain, and damage to this structure reduces interhemispheric communication and can produce the behavior described in this question.
Drowsiness‭ (‬sedation‭) ‬is‭ ‬most likely to be an initial side effect of which of the following antidepressants‭?
sinequan (doxepin)

Doxepin is a tricyclic antidepressant, and drowsiness is one of the most common side effects of this drug (although it tends to decrease over time). In contrast, the drugs listed in answers a, b, and c are SSRIs and are less likely than doxepin to produce sedation.

The tricyclic antidepressants are, in general, more sedating than the SSRIs.
The benzodiazepines‭ ‬exert their therapeutic effects by:
increasing GABA activity

Knowing that GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter and that the benzodiazepines are anti-anxiety drugs would have helped you identify the correct answer to this question.

The benzodiazepines enhance the efficiency of GABA activity at receptor sites and thereby decrease anxiety and enhance sleep.

ie GABA is a natural benzo - GABA is an inhibitory neuro - benzos inhibit anxiety
Complex partial seizures originating in the temporal lobe‭ ‬are‭ ‬most likely to cause which of the following symptoms‭?
a feeling of déjà vu‭ ‬or jamais vu

Complex partial seizures are due to abnormal electrical activity in one region of the brain.

Typical symptoms of seizure activity in the temporal lobe are a change in perception, a sudden alteration in emotions and/or a sense of déjà vu or jamais vu (a sense of familiarity or unfamiliarity, respectively).
symptoms of antipsychotic drugs
Parkinsonism is an intermediate-onset side effect of the antipsychotic drugs. Its symptoms include muscle rigidity, impaired balance, gait changes, tremors, changes in facial expressions and speech, and muscle cramps.

Acute dystonia is an early-onset side effect of the antipsychotics. Its primary symptoms are muscle spasms and slow abnormal movements, most often in the eyes, jaw, and tongue.

Tardive dyskinesia is a serious and potentially irreversible side effect of the antipsychotics that is characterized by‭ ‬repetitive,‭ ‬involuntary tic-like movements of the face,‭ ‬eyelids,‭ ‬mouth,‭ ‬tongue,‭ ‬extremities,‭ ‬and/or trunk.

Akathisia is another intermediate-onset side effect of the antipsychotics. It involves an uncomfortable sense of restlessness that may be accompanied by foot tapping, leg shaking, or pacing.
brain waves and corresponding phsiological states
Alpha waves predominate during states of relaxed wakefulness.

Beta waves predominate during states of alert wakefulness.

Delta waves occur during periods of deep sleep.

Theta waves occur when a person is in a deeply relaxed, drowsy state. Theta waves predominate during Stage 2 sleep.
Carbamazepine and other anticonvulsant‭ ‬drugs were originally used to treat seizure disorders but are now also used to treat:
bipolar disorder

Carbamazepine and other anticonvulsant drugs are often useful for treating bipolar disorder for individuals who have not responded to lithium, and there is some evidence that they are particularly effective as mood stabilizers for “rapid cyclers” (individuals who experience frequent mood swings).
The effectiveness of clomipramine as the treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder‭ (‬OCD‭) ‬provides support for the hypothesis that this disorder is related to abnormalities in brain levels of:

Clomipramine and other antidepressants exert their effects by altering levels of norepinephrine, serotonin, and/or dopamine.

A current theory about the cause of OCD is that it stems from low serotonin levels. This theory is supported by the fact that clomipramine (a tricyclic antidepressant that has anti-obsessional effects) blocks the reuptake of serotonin by presynaptic neurons.
Propranolol hydrochloride‭ (‬Inderal‭) ‬is most likely to be prescribed‭ ‬as a treatment for which of the following‭?
essential tremor

Propranolol hydrochloride is a beta-blocker and is used to treat cardiovascular disorders, tremors, migraine headaches, and the physical symptoms of anxiety.

Essential tremor (tremor associated with purposeful movement) is one of the conditions that propranolol HCl is used to treat.
Spinal cord injury at the‭ ________ ‬level is most likely to result in quadriplegia.

The 31 pairs of spinal nerves are divided into five groups or regions. These are, from the top to the bottom of the spinal cord:
1. cervical,
2. thoracic,
3. lumbar,
4. sacral,
5. coccygeal


Quadriplegia (the loss of sensory and motor functioning in the arms and legs) results from damage at the cervical level.

Paraplegia (loss of functioning in the legs) is caused by damage at the thoracic level.

Damage at the lumbar level is likely to cause some loss of functioning in the hips and legs.

Damage at the sacral level also causes loss of functioning in the hips and legs.
cingulate gyrus
The cingulate gyrus is part of the limbic system and is believed to be responsible for focusing attention on emotionally significant events, linking sensory input to emotions, mediating emotional reactions to pain, and regulating aggressive behavior.
When in a restful,‭ ‬relaxed state,‭ ‬your brain emits regular high-amplitude,‭ ‬low frequency‭ ______ ‬waves.

Alpha waves are regular high-amplitude, low frequency waves that are recorded during states of restfulness and relaxation. Alpha waves predominate during Stage 1 sleep.
anticholinergic side effects
caused by the antidepressant drug’s interference with acetylcholine activity.

e.g. dry mouth,‭ ‬urinary retention,‭ ‬constipation,‭ ‬and blurred vision.‭ ‬
Nausea,‭ ‬stomach cramps,‭ ‬excessive thirstiness,‭ ‬increased frequency of urination,‭ ‬muscle weakness,‭ ‬impaired memory,‭ ‬fine hand tremor,‭ ‬and weight gain are side effects most associated with which of the following‭?
Acetycholine - ACES
Acetycholine - ACES
Acetylcholine is the active ingredient in memory
Cholinergic receptors – nicotinic and muscarinic (more i’s is excitatory less inhibitory)
Everywhere – both CNS and PNS
Sleep – REM sleep, sleep-wake cycle
Anterograde amnesia is usually first sign
Life expectancy decrease
Zapped (loss of acetylcholinergic neurons)
Hereditary disease
Entire hippocampus becomes affected
Identified by neurofibrillary tangles
Mutation in amyloid genes associated with disease
Entohinal areas degenerate first
Retrograde amnesia develops
Senile plaques at synapses
Alzheimer’s Phases - ABCD
Alzheimer’s Phases - ABCD
Ataxia – taxis means movement
Broca vs Wernicke
Broca vs Wernicke
Broca = broken speech
Wernicke if you put together “were” + “nicke” makes no sense
Catecholamines - NED
Catecholamines - NED
Circadian Rhythm
Circadian Rhythm
Time Marches On - clock advances older = sleepier earlier & awaken earlier
Delirium Tremors (DTs) - HADE
Delirium Tremors (DTs) - HADE
Hallucinations Vivid
Autonomic hyperactivity
Excited (agitation)
Dopamine - I’m LD with a STD
Dopamine - I’m LD with a STD
Initiation of movement

Low dopamine is associated with Depression

Substantia Nigra / Schizophrenia (high dopamine)
Tourettes (high dopamine)
Coke blocks while nic stims
Coke blocks while nic stims
Cocaine blocks reuptake of dopamine while nicotine stimulates release
Forebrain - TLC Before DeaTH
Forebrain - TLC Before DeaTH
Limbic system
Basal Ganglia
GENDER and motor skills - girls are FAB!
GENDER and motor skills - girls are FAB! (greater Flexibility,
Agility, Balance)
Glutamate - MSG
Glutamate - MSG
Memory – long term
Seizures – when too much
Graduate school – learning
Hindbrain - C Her Majesty’s Posterior
Hindbrain - C Her Majesty’s Posterior
Hippocampus - campus - I learn new material on a college campus.
Hyperthyroidism - STING
Hyperthyroidism - STING
Tremor or tachycardia
Intolerance to heat, irregular menstruation, irritability
Goiter /GI (loose stools/diarrhea)
Hypoglycemia symptoms
Hypoglycemia symptoms
Hypoglycemia is a love story
Hungry for love, makes your head spin (dizziness), don’t see clearly, blurred vision; then
Acquired Love, your heart palpitates and you are anxious
Lost love – Depressed and confused
The hypothalamus is responsible for the 5 F's
Falling asleep
Stim the lat get fat
Stim the ven get thin
Tale of the Hypothalamus
Tale of the Hypothalamus
Kluver-Bucy syndrome
Kluver-Bucy syndrome
compulsive oral behaviors, docile, altered dietary habits, no fear or aggression
Midbrain - MR
Midbrain - MR
Reticular Activating System
Parkinson Disease - SMART
Parkinson Disease - SMART
Shuffling gait
Mask like face
Retrograde/Anterograde Amnesia
Retrograde for Recent, just before the accident - Anterograde for After the accident
Ritalin Side Effects
Ritalin Side Effects
Rebound hyperactivity on withdrawal/restlessness
Increased blood pressure
Tics / tearfulness
Appetite reduction
Lack of growth
Nervious problems
Serotonin and GABA and Endorphins
Serotonin and GABA and Endorphins
Gabbing during Sex (serotonin) Ends relationships, I would rather be Hunting
All are inhibitory
Low GABA = Huntingtons
sympathetic nervous system
sympathetic nervous system
" I felt sympathetic towards the man in the park that was chased by the bear."

Sympathetic nervous system helps mobilize the body for flight or flight
which is necessary in that type of situation.
TCA side effects
TCA side effects
Constipation /cardiac effects
Appetite increase / anticholinergic effects
Seizures /sedation / sickness (nausea) / staggering (postural hypotension)
Temporal Lobe
Temporal - Primary Auditory Areas (Auditory Cortex (x2)
Classic vs. Common Migraines
Classic vs. Common Migraines
Classic migraine has letter a for aura in “classic”

Common migraine has no “a” hence no aura.