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51 Cards in this Set

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A newly developed program to reduce aggression in children is based on the work of Patterson and his colleagues.‭ ‬Consequently,‭ ‬it most likely includes which of the following‭?
training parents in child management skills

Patterson’s model of aggression in children takes into account characteristics of the environment, the child, and the parent. However, the primary focus is on the behavior of parents, and his intervention targets the parents’ childrearing skills.

Patterson’s parent management training focuses on parenting skills and, among other things, teaches parents alternative disciplinary techniques.
A child with an insecure/anxious-avoidant pattern of attachment:
shows little distress when separated from his/her mother and turns away from her when she returns.

Attachment patterns are categorized in terms of four types: secure, insecure/anxious-avoidant, insecure/anxious-ambivalent, and disorganized-disoriented.

In Ainsworth’s "strange situation," insecure/anxious-avoidant children are uninterested in exploration, show little distress when separated from their mothers, and avoid her when she returns.
Habituation-dishabituation research has demonstrated that,‭ ‬at about‭ ___ ‬months of age,‭ ‬infants‭ ‬begin to‭ ‬exhibit recognition memory for‭ ‬a visual stimulus for‭ ‬up to‭ ‬24‭ ‬hours following presentation of the stimulus.

Researchers use several techniques to study memory in infants including habituation-dishabituation.

a. CORRECT By three months of age, infants habituate to visual stimuli – i.e., show less response to the second presentation of a stimulus for periods up to 24 hours. This is interpreted as indicating that the infant recognizes the stimulus.
The studies have generally shown that children have the most difficulty adjusting to the remarriage of their parents when they are in‭ ‬________ at the time of remarriage.
early adolescence

Hetherington (1993) and others have found that children’s adjustment to parental remarriage is affected by several factors including the child’s age.

Hetherington concludes that individuals in early adolescence have the most difficulty adapting to the remarriage of a parent because the introduction of a stepparent at this time may exacerbate the normal adjustment problems associated with this age.
A‭ ‬16-month-old child who calls her pet cat‭ “‬kitty‭” ‬sees a dog for the first time and calls it‭ “‬kitty.‭” ‬In terms of Piaget’s theory of cognitive development,‭ ‬the child is displaying:

Piaget distinguished between two complementary processes that underlie cognitive development: assimilation and accommodation.

Assimilation involves incorporating new knowledge into existing cognitive structures or schemes. The child in the question doesn’t know what a dog is and is incorporating it into her existing “kitty” scheme.

Accommodation involves modifying an existing scheme or creating a new one.
To study social referencing,‭ ‬a developmental psychologist would most likely use:
visual cliff

Social referencing refers to relying on the emotional response of another person (e.g., caregiver) to decide how to respond in an ambiguous situation.

Of the techniques listed in the answers, the visual cliff is the only one that has been used to study social referencing. Research using this technique has found that a baby’s willingness to cross the visual cliff depends on his/her mother’s facial expression.
Adults aged‭ ‬65‭ ‬and older usually report the largest number of memories for events that occurred in the‭ ‬10-year period prior to being evaluated.‭ ‬For these individuals,‭ ‬the next largest number of memories is for events that occurred when they were between the ages of:

The research has shown that older adults typically recall recent and remote events better than intermediate events.

The term “reminiscence bump” is used to refer to the greater memory for events that occurred during adolescence and early adulthood.
According to Whorf’s linguistic relativity hypothesis:
language determines the nature of thought.

An ongoing debate in the literature focuses on the relationship between language and thought.

According to Whorf’s hypothesis (also known as the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis), the structure and lexicon of language influences how the individual perceives, interprets, and reacts to the world.
To reduce a child's aggressive behavior,‭ ‬the best approach is to:
help the child recognize the consequences of his/her behavior and identify alternative behaviors.

The research on this issue is not entirely consistent. There is evidence that fostering empathy (e.g., by helping the child recognize the consequences of his/her behavior for the target of the aggression) and helping the child identify alternative behaviors is useful, especially for younger children.
Research investigating father-child attachment suggests that it depends most on:
play activities.

Fathers and their children often develop a strong bond, but the behaviors that contribute to father-child attachment differ from those that are most important for mother-child attachment.

The research indicates that the father-child bond is related more to the father's role as "playmate" than to nurturance and caregiving, which underlie the mother-child bond.
Studies comparing children who are actively rejected or neglected by their peers have found that:
children who are actively rejected have worse outcomes.

The research has shown that being actively rejected by peers is associated with worse outcomes than is being neglected by peers.

Children who are actively rejected by peers exhibit a number of negative social behaviors, while those who are neglected are relatively well-adjusted. In addition, neglected children are more likely to experience an improvement in their peer status when they change social groups (e.g., change schools).
Kohlberg argued that there is a monotonic relationship between moral judgment and moral action and proposed that,‭ ‬as one moves from a lower to a higher stage of moral development:
the range of possible moral actions becomes narrower and the individual assumes greater responsibility for relating his/her judgments to actions.

Although Kohlberg believed that there is a positive relationship between moral judgment and moral action, he proposed that this relationship is much stronger at higher levels of moral development.

The stronger relationship between judgment and action at higher stages is attributable to two factors: first, the range of actions suggested by the individual’s judgment narrows; and, second, the individual experiences an increasing sense of responsibility to act.
During the second stage of Kohlberg’s preconventional level of moral development,‭ ‬children obey rules because:
doing so helps them satisfy their personal needs.

The preconventional level of moral development consists of two stages: punishment and obedience and instrumental hedonism.

During the instrumental hedonism stage, children consider the correct action to be the one that best satisfies their own personal needs. To illustrate this stage, Kohlberg described a 10-year old boy who, when asked what it means to be a good son, replied, "Be good to your father and he will be good to you."

doing so helps them avoid punishment is characteristic of the initial punishment and obedience stage of the preconventional level.

they feel they have a personal duty to uphold rules and laws is characteristic of the second stage of the conventional level.
Rutter’s indicators for psychopathology are:
-low SES
-marital discord
-large family size and overcrowding
-paternal criminality -maternal psychiatric disorder
-being placed in foster care
Bronfenbrenner’s ecological model:
distinguishes between four layers (levels) that influence a child’s development: -microsystem

The mesosystem is the second layer and consists of interactions between components of the microsystem – e.g., the parents’ involvement in the child’s school experiences and interactions between the child’s church and community.

The exosystem consists of elements in the social setting that indirectly affect the child’s development (e.g., the parents’ jobs).

The macrosystem is the outermost layer and includes the values, laws, customs, etc. of the child’s culture.
Information processing theories:
conceptualize the human mind as a computer.

Information processing theorists focus on mental operations and view cognitive development as due to changes in mental capacity and increasing sophistication in the use of relevant rules and strategies.

Information processing theorists view development as continuous and do not propose that it occurs only during critical periods.

In contrast to Piagetians, information processing theorists are not interested in stages of cognitive development.
Auditory localization:
refers to ability to orient toward the direction of a sound.

Although auditory localization is apparent soon after birth, it seems to disappear between 2 and 4 months of age, and then reappears and improves during the rest of the first year of life.
Most babies say their first words at about‭ _____ ‬months of age.

For the exam, you want to be familiar with the language milestones of early childhood.

Most infants say their first recognizable word at 12 months of age.
Ron attends a rally organized to oppose gun control.‭ ‬When asked why he is against gun control,‭ ‬Ron states,‭ "‬Well,‭ ‬the law says people have the right to own a gun,‭ ‬and everybody in my hometown has a gun.‭" ‬Kohlberg would say that Ron is at which level of moral development‭?

Kohlberg distinguishes between three levels of moral development: preconventional, conventional, and postconventional. (PCP)

The conventional level of moral development is characterized by support for and adherence to existing social rules and laws.

Moral judgments at the postconventional level are based on social contracts, democratically accepted laws, and the individual's conscience.

Preconventional moral judgments are typical of children aged 4 through 10 and reflect a desire to avoid punishment and satisfy one's own needs.
Kohlberg's three levels of moral development (PCP):
1. preconventional
Preconventional moral judgments are typical of children aged 4 through 10 and reflect a desire to avoid punishment and satisfy one's own needs.
2. conventional
The conventional level of moral development is characterized by support for and adherence to existing social rules and laws.

Stage 3 is the first stage in Kohlberg's conventional level of moral development. It is referred to as the "Good Boy/Good Girl" stage and is characterized by a strong belief in the Golden Rule.

3. postconventional
Moral judgments at the postconventional level are based on social contracts, democratically accepted laws, and the individual's conscience.
Infant reflexes:
Reflexes are unlearned responses to particular stimuli in the environment.

The rooting reflex occurs when the baby turns his/her head in the direction of a touch or stroke on his/her cheek.

The Babinski reflex occurs when the newborn’s foot is tickled.

The Moro (startle) reflex occurs when the newborn hears an unexpected loud noise.
PKU (phenylketonuria) is a recessive gene disorder.

PKU involves an inability to metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine. Mental retardation and other symptoms of PKU can be reduced or eliminated by a diet low in phenylalanine beginning at birth.
The relationship of preadolescent siblings is best described as:
close and conflictual.

The research indicates that sibling relationships often involve contradictions, but the combination of closeness and conflict seems to be particularly characteristic of siblings during preadolescence.
A key accomplishment of Piaget's preoperational stage is the emergence of:
the symbolic function.

The preoperational stage (2-7) is characterized by the development of the symbolic function, which permits language use, symbolic play, and deferred imitation.
Piaget's stages of cognitive development:
0-2 sensor1motor stage:
object concept develops

2-7 preoperational stage:
characterized by the development of the symbolic function, which permits language use, symbolic play, and deferred imitation

7-11 concrete operational period:
Conservation is acquired which refers to the knowledge that physical properties of objects remain invariant with transformations that do not involve addition or subtraction.

Formal operations are characteristic of the final (formal operational) stage of cognitive development.
Effects of divorce:
Research by Wallerstein (2000) and others has shown that, at least for some children, parental divorce has long-term consequences.

The research has found that, for some children, the negative impact of divorce is not apparent until the child reaches adolescence or adulthood. Initially, this “sleeper effect” was found for girls who seemed well-adjusted as children following the divorce of their parents but were at increased risk for antisocial behaviors, low self-esteem, and early sexual activity during adolescence and negative attitudes toward marriage as adults. More recent research suggests that some boys also exhibit a sleeper effect.
Sandra Bem’s‭ (‬1984‭) ‬theory of gender role identity development emphasizes which of the following‭?
gender schemas

The exam occasionally includes a question that requires you to be recognize the name and work of a specific theorist or researcher; and this is an example of this type of question.

Bem’s gender schema theory combines social learning theory and cognitive-developmental theory and focuses on the role of gender schemas, which are cognitive structures of masculinity and femininity that influence how the child interprets the world.
The‭ __________ ‬is the least developed area of the brain at birth.
cerebral cortex

Not surprisingly, it is the higher centers of the brain that are least developed at birth.

The cerebral cortex, which is responsible for higher-level cognitive skills, complex motor behaviors, language, and spatial skills, is almost completely undeveloped at birth.
The original research on the self-fulfilling prophecy effect‭ (‬Rosenthal and Jacobson,‭ ‬1968‭) ‬examined how:
teachers‭’ ‬expectations about the academic performance of children affected the children’s actual performance.

The self-fulfilling prophecy (Rosenthal) effect predicts that other people’s expectations about our performance affects our actual performance.

Rosenthal and Jacobson (1968) found that grade school teachers’ expectations about students had a self-fulfilling prophecy effect – i.e., when teachers were told that the test scores of some students indicated they would be “academic spurters” (even though the students had been randomly selected), those students did well, apparently because they were treated differently by the teachers.
Research investigating compliance behaviors of individuals with diabetes mellitus indicates that adherence to dietary and other treatment regimens is most problematic:
during adolescence

Research on diabetes mellitus and other chronic illnesses has consistently shown that compliance is most problematic during adolescence.

Although adolescents are more knowledgeable about their illness than younger children are, they typically exhibit a lower level of compliance.
Research evaluating the psychological and behavioral effects of child sexual abuse have found that all of the following except‭ _________ ‬are associated with more severe outcomes.
male gender

Most studies have not found a consistent difference in outcomes for male and female victims of sexual abuse. However, the studies that have found a gender difference have found the outcomes to be worse for females than for males.

An earlier age of onset of the abuse has been linked to worse outcomes.

Abuse by a parent, parent-figure, or other family member is associated with worse outcomes than is abuse by a stranger.

Abuse by a much older perpetrator is associated with worse outcomes.
Konrad Lorenz’s‭ (‬1957‭) ‬research on‭ “‬imprinting‭” ‬led to the search for‭ ____________________ ‬in human infants.
a critical period for attachment

“Imprinting” refers to the bond that develops during a critical period following birth in some non-human species.

a. CORRECT The ethologist Lorenz found that geese bonded to the first moving object they encounter during the first few days following birth. His research led to a search for a similar “critical period” for attachment in human infants.
Sarah and Eve are served liver for dinner.‭ ‬Sarah screams,‭ "‬Now there's more‭!" ‬when hers is cut up into bite-size pieces.‭ ‬Eve says,‭ "‬No,‭ ‬there's not‭! ‬It's just the same.‭" ‬In terms of Piaget’s stages of cognitive development:
Sara is in the preoperational stage

Piaget distinguished between four stages of cognitive development: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational.

a. CORRECT Sarah appears to be in the preoperational stage since she is unable to conserve and, thus, believes there is more liver on her plate when it is cut into small pieces. In contrast, Eve can conserve and is, therefore, in the concrete (or perhaps formal) operational stage.
Two-word sentences are characteristic of the speech of children at‭ ________ ‬months of age.
18-24 mos

Two-word sentences are referred to as telegraphic speech.

Telegraphic speech is characteristic of children between the ages of 18 and 24 months, and consists of the most important words (e.g., “my doll” and “give cake”).
As defined by Piaget,‭ ‬a‭ __________ ‬circular reaction occurs when a baby explores the characteristics of familiar objects by deliberately using them in new ways.

According to Piaget, much of the cognitive development that occurs during the sensorimotor stage is the result of circular reactions, in which the child repeats or reproduces a pleasurable or interesting experience.

Tertiary circular reactions predominate from ages 12 to 18 months and involve varying an original or usual action on an object to see what happens.

Piaget considered reflexes to be the “building blocks” of cognitive development from birth to 1 month.

Primary circular reactions predominate from ages 1 to 4 months. They involve simple motor habits that center around the baby’s own body (e.g., thumb sucking).

Secondary circular reactions predominate from ages 4 to 8 months and are actions involving other people or objects.
Which aspect of long-term memory is usually the first to be adversely affected by increasing age‭?

Long-term memory is divided into procedural and declarative memory, and declarative memory is further divided into semantic and episodic (autobiographical) memory.

Episodic memory is memory for personally experienced events and is the first aspect of long-term memory that shows age-related declines.
Infantile amnesia refers to the‭ ‬inability of:
adolescents and adults to recall events they experienced prior to‭ ‬3‭ ‬or‭ ‬4‭ ‬years of age.
Marcia's identity statuses:

Don’t Forget Marcia’s Adolescence
Marcia distinguishes between four identity statuses that reflect the degree to which the individual has experienced an identity crisis and is committed to an identity.

Identity diffusion occurs when the individual has not yet experienced an identity crisis and is not committed to a particular identity.

Identity foreclosure occurs when the individual has not experienced an identity crisis but has chosen an identity (e.g., career) that has been imposed by others.

Identity moratorium occurs when the individual is experiencing an identity crisis and is actively exploring alternative identities.

Identity achievement occurs when the individual has resolved the identity crisis and is committed to an identity.
According to Kohlberg,‭ ‬a person in the sixth‭ (‬final‭) ‬stage of moral development is guided in his or her moral judgments primarily by:
principles of conscience

Kohlberg's original theory of moral development included six stages. The sixth stage is the “morality of individual principles of conscience” stage.

In the sixth stage of development, moral judgments are based on self-chosen principles that are considered universal in application.
Longitudinal studies of children who attended Head Start programs have found that:
early IQ gains decline but improvements in academic achievement persist into adolescence.

While early research on Head Start found that it has positive effects on IQ, subsequent longitudinal studies found that IQ gains usually decline over time but that beneficial effects on academic achievement and success persist into adolescence and early adulthood.
Children ages‭ ‬7‭ ‬to‭ ‬9‭ ‬years of age are most likely to say that:
people in TV shows are actors.

Researchers interested in the impact of television on children have attempted to determine the degree to which children of different ages distinguish between fact and fantasy.

3-4 people on TV can see into their homes

'people who die on TV are really dead' is also characteristic of younger children.

Children begin to understand that characters on television are actors who are playing roles by 7 to 9 years of age.
Klinefelter syndrome is due to:
an extra chromosome

Klinefelter syndrome is due to a chromosomal abnormality that affects males only.

Men with Klinefelter syndrome have an extra X chromosome. Symptoms of this disorder include low testosterone levels and infertility, breast development, and reduced body and facial hair.
Of the senses,‭ _______ ‬is least well-developed at birth.
Which of the following aspects of memory is likely to show the greatest age-related decline‭?
recent long-term memory

Research has confirmed a predictable pattern in age-related declines in memory and other cognitive abilities.

Recent long-term (secondary) memory is most affected by increasing age, followed by working memory. The other aspects of memory listed in the answers are relatively unaffected by age.
The most common symptoms of congenital cytomegalovirus‭ (‬CMV‭) ‬are:
mental retardation and hearing and visual impairments.

Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) occurs when CMV, a type of herpes virus, is passed from an infected pregnant woman to her fetus through the placenta.
Piaget stages of cognitive development
Piaget distinguished between four stages of cognitive development:
(0-2) sensorimotor,
(2-7) preoperational
(7-11) concrete operational
(11 and beyond)formal operational.

Note that the exact age at which each stage begins varies, depending on the individual’s experiences.
Piaget's two stages of moral development
heteronomous and autonomous

heteronomous - Children focus on the consequences of behavior only and consider relevant laws and rules.

(10-11) autonomous
Children base their judgments of behavior primarily on the intentions of the actor.
Recent research suggests that play in childhood:
contributes to many aspects of development.

Current theories about play during childhood regard it as important for a child's physical, intellectual, social, and emotional development.
Which of the following is LEAST likely to be one of a child's first words‭?
a. fall
b. bye bye
c. cold
d. cookie
c. cold

A child’s first words are most likely to be social or functional expressions such as hi, bye-bye, or thanks; names for objects that are permanent, familiar, and usually movable such as dada or blanket; and action words such as push or fall.

Words representing sensations or feelings such as “cold” are likely to appear later in the child’s linguistic development.

“Fall” is an action word and is likely to be a first word.

“Bye-bye” is a social expression and is likely to be one of a child’s first words.

“Cookie” is the name for a permanent, familiar, and movable object and is the type of word that is likely to be one of a child’s first words.
Words representing sensations or feelings such as “cold” are likely to appear later in the child’s linguistic development.
a chromosomal abnormality

Down Syndrome is a chromosomal condition that is associated with mental retardation, specific facial features, and certain physical abnormalities (e.g., hypotonia, heart defects, and hearing impairment).
Kohlberg's levels of moral development
1. preconventional morality (punishment-obedience orientation and instrumental-relativist orientation),
2. conventional morality (good boy/nice girl orientation and law and order orientation),
3. postconventional morality (legalistic orientation and universal Ethical Principles orientation).

Individuals at the punishment-obedience level of preconventional morality believe an action is moral to the degree that it does not result in punishment. Although this stage is characteristic of children aged 4 to 10, it seems that some politicians are also at this level.

Conventional morality, which is typical of individuals aged 10-13, is characterized by moral judgments motivated by a desire to be liked (good boy/nice girl orientation) or a desire to avoid censure by authority (law and order orientation).

Postconventional morality, a level which is not reached by most adults, is characterized by a concern for maintaining the social order (legalistic orientation) or meeting the criteria set by one's own conscience (universal Ethical Principles orientation).