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64 Cards in this Set

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Replacing a‭ “‬failure identity‭” ‬with a‭ “‬success identity‭” ‬is a goal of treatment for practitioners of‭ _______ ‬therapy.
reality.

Glasser, the founder of reality therapy, viewed identity as a basic psychological need and distinguished between success and failure identities. A person develops a success identity when the person fulfills his/her other needs in a responsible way.
Research on Yalom’s‭ (‬1985‭) ‬curative factors in group therapy indicates that which of the following factors are likely to be cited as most important by group members‭?
cohesion,‭ ‬interpersonal learning,‭ ‬catharsis,‭ ‬self-understanding
object relations theory
According to object relations theory, the tendency toward attachment is an innate capacity that developed through evolution as a survival mechanism; and problems related to attachment in infancy have negative consequences for adult personality.
A family therapist working from the perspective of social learning theory is likely to describe spouse abuse as:
an acquired response that has been maintained by its ability to reduce stress.

Social learning theory emphasizes the impact of parents and others on behavior as well as the internal, vicarious, and/or external consequences of a behavior.

This answer is the only one that addresses the impact of learning and consequences on behavior
For practitioners of Minuchin’s structural family therapy,‭ ‬a symptom is:
a maladaptive reaction to stress.

A primary goal of structural family therapy is to restructure the family so that it is better able to adapt to maturational and situational stressors.

For structural family therapists, developmental and environmental changes produce stress which a family can respond to in either a healthy or unhealthy way.
Research by‭ ‬Howard and his colleagues‭ (‬1986‭) ‬found that about‭ ___‬%‭ ‬of therapy clients show‭ “‬marked improvement‭” ‬by the‭ ‬26th therapy session.
75%

Howard et al. (1986) found that the positive relationship between therapy duration and therapy outcome “levels off” at about the 26th therapy session.

These investigators report that about 75% of therapy clients show “measurable improvement” by 26 sessions; and, at 52 sessions, this number increases to only about 85%.
Helms’s‭ (‬1995‭) ‬White Racial Identity Development Model distinguishes‭ ‬between six statuses.‭ ‬The first status is:
contact

Helms’s six identity statuses are contact, disintegration, reintegration, pseudo-independence, immersion/emersion, and autonomy.

Contact is the first status in Helms’s model. It is characterized by a lack of awareness of racial identity and often by racist attitudes and beliefs.
In contrast to traditional approaches to psychotherapy,‭ ‬culturally sensitive approaches attempt to understand a client’s experience of an illness within the client’s cultural context.‭ ‬In other words,‭ ‬culturally sensitive approaches adopt an‭ ______ ‬perspective.
emic

The terms “emic” and “etic” were originally used by linguistic anthropologists but are now also used by psychologists interested in cross-cultural psychotherapy.

Traditional psychiatry and psychotherapy reflect an etic approach ("view from the outside"), while cultural psychiatry and psychotherapy adopt an emic perspective ("view from the inside"). Culturally sensitive therapies emphasize an emic approach.
When calculating the "effect size" you would:
The term "effect size" is associated with meta-analysis.
divide the difference between the means of the experimental and control groups by the standard deviation of the control group.

Although there are several ways to calculate an effect size, only one of the responses accurately describes one of these methods.

The most commonly used effect size is a type of standard score, which means that it reports the effect of an intervention in terms of standard deviation units.
Practitioners of Gestalt psychotherapy consider a client’s desire to talk about his/her past as:
a way for the client to avoid coming to terms with the present.

Gestalt therapists do not deny the significance of the past. However, in therapy, they encourage clients to stay in the present even when discussing past events or feelings since focusing on the past is viewed as a way to avoid the present.
‭__________ ‬can be viewed as a phenomenon that provides a therapist with opportunities to‭ "‬hear‭" ‬the message behind a client's overt behavior.
countertransference.

Freud viewed countertransference as an obstacle to the progress of therapy, but others have redefined it as a potential source of useful information about clients.
The use of a screening test to identify high-risk individuals in order to determine who is likely to benefit from intervention is an example of‭ _________ ‬prevention.
secondary

Secondary preventions are offered to specific individuals who have been identified as being at high risk by some type of screening procedure.

Tertiary preventions are for people who have already developed a disorder and are aimed at reducing relapse and other negative consequences.

As defined by most experts, primary preventions are those that are offered to groups of individuals rather than to specific individuals who have been identified as being at high-risk for a disorder.
A‭ ‬36-year old Asian-American woman comes to Dr.‭ ‬Williams,‭ ‬a White middle-class psychologist,‭ ‬at the suggestion of her physician who was unable to find a physical explanation for her symptoms.‭ ‬Although the woman has lived in the‭ ‬United States most of her life,‭ ‬she still lives with her parents,‭ ‬who are traditional in their lifestyle and values,‭ ‬and her social life is focused primarily in the Asian community.‭ ‬The woman complains primarily of physical symptoms including frequent headaches,‭ ‬loss of appetite,‭ ‬and insomnia.‭ ‬Being familiar with the literature on cross-cultural counseling,‭ ‬Dr.‭ ‬Williams knows she should assume an active,‭ ‬directive approach.‭ ‬This means that Dr.‭ ‬Williams should:
acknowledge the woman''s symptoms and discuss what she might do to alleviate them.

Most of the literature on counseling Asian and Asian-American clients stresses the need to assume an active, directive role.

An active, directive approach doesn't necessarily mean assigning a diagnosis, asking very direct personal questions, or making interpretations. With regard to somatic complaints, for example, D. W. Sue and D. Sue recommend that the clinician acknowledge the symptoms and then recommend physical treatments before dealing with emotional factors.
The belief that a child's misbehavior has one of four goals‭ — ‬i.e.,‭ ‬attention,‭ ‬revenge,‭ ‬power,‭ ‬or to display inadequacy‭ — ‬is most consistent with:
Adler

Adler believed that all behaviors are goal-directed and purposeful.

Dreikurs, an associate of Adler’s, described the misbehavior of children as attempts to belong, which reflect faulty beliefs about what it takes to belong (e.g., “I belong only when I'm the center of attention”).
A formative evaluation is conducted:
during the delivery of the intervention to identify ways to improve it.

As its name suggests, a formative evaluation is conducted while an intervention is being “formed” (developed or delivered) and is used to determine if the intervention needs to be modified in order to meet its goals.
A‭ ‬Milan systemic family therapist will emphasize the use of which of the following in therapy‭?
circular questions

A primary goal of Milan systemic family therapy is to “help family members see their choices and to assist them in exercising their prerogative of choosing”

For systemic therapists, questions are not only means for obtaining information but also act as a therapeutic intervention. Circular questions help define and clarify confused ideas and behaviors and introduce new information to family members.
According to‭ ‬Wrenn‭ (‬1962‭)‬,‭ ‬therapists are‭ “‬culturally encapsulated‭” ‬when they:
disregard cultural differences and are unaware of their own cultural biases.

Wrenn (1962) was among the first to point out that mental health professionals frequently fail to consider the impact of culture in their work with clients.

As defined by Wrenn, therapists are culturally encapsulated when they interpret everyone’s reality through their own cultural assumptions and stereotypes and are unaware of their own cultural biases.
Client-centered therapists are most likely to interpret a client’s heart palpitations,‭ ‬hyperventilation,‭ ‬tension headaches,‭ ‬and nausea as:
manifestations of denied threats to the self-concept.

For practitioners of client-centered therapy, personality and behavioral problems arise when an individual's natural tendency toward growth and actualization is disrupted by incongruence between the self and experience.

Incongruence results when the evaluations made by others are inconsistent with one's self-concept. One way in which this incongruence is dealt with is to deny the external experience by saying it doesn't exist or by distorting it. Rogers believed that such denial doesn't work because it leads to anxiety which, in turn, may produce visceral symptoms.
Which of the following values is least characteristic of Asians and Asian Americans‭?
egalitarianism

M. K. Ho identified seven values that are characteristic of traditional Asian cultures and that may also apply to many Asian Americans: filial piety (respect for parents); shame; self-control; assumption of the middle position (consensus).

Egalitarianism conflicts with traditional Asian values including the value of filial piety.
A‭ ‬primary goal of‭ ‬interpersonal‭ ‬therapy‭ ‬(ITP‭) ‬is:
reducing or elliminating symptoms

Interpersonal therapy is based on a medical model and views depression and other mental disorders as illnesses.

As its name implies, a primary goal of ITP is improved interpersonal relationships. However, consistent with the medical model, ITP also focuses on symptom reduction.
A‭ "‬teleological‭" ‬approach is most associated with:
Adler

A teleological approach views behavior and personality as being "pulled" by a subjective future rather than being "pushed" by an objective past (e.g., by heredity or environmental events).

A distinguishing characteristic of Adler's approach is its teleological explanation for behavior. Adler believed that behavior is determined by future goals.
(TA _ teleological/Adler_being a TA means you want to be a prof in the future)
Prochaska and DiClemente’s‭ (‬1982‭) ‬stages of change‭ (‬transtheoretical‭) ‬model predicts that a person in the‭ __________ ‬stage plans to take action‭ ‬within the next six months‭ ‬that will alter his/her problematic behavior.
contemplation

Prochaska and DiClemente’s stages of change model distinguishes between six stages of change: precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance, and termination.

A person in the contemplation stage intends to take action in the next six months.
Prochaska & DiClemete's transtheoretical model of change:
pre-contemplation - A person in this stage is not planning to change in the foreseeable future - Monica is not planning to take the licensing exam

A person in the contemplation stage intends to take action in the next six months - In March I planned to take the exam in 6 months

A person in the preparation stage is planning to take action in the near future (usually defined as in the next month) - In July I comitted to taking the exam in 1 month

action - A person in this stage is currently taking actions to alter his/her behavior - I am now cramming
The notion that there are three major life tasks‭ – ‬friendship,‭ ‬occupation,‭ ‬and love‭ – ‬is MOST consistent with the philosophy of:
Adler

The three tasks listed in the question (friendship, occupation, and love) all involve social interactions.

Of the individuals listed, one is most associated with an emphasis on social factors (i.e., social interest).

Adler believed that people are motivated primarily by an innate social interest and that the goal in life is to act in ways that fulfill social responsibilities.
For Carl Rogers,‭ ‬incongruence between self and experience:
can lead to denial or distortion of the self or experience.

According to Rogers, for an individual to achieve self-actualization, his/her sense of self must remain unified, organized, and whole.

a. Incorrect See explanation for response b.

b. CORRECT Rogers believed that the self can become disorganized when there is incongruence between the self and experience. This occurs when the individual experiences conditions of worth (e.g., is given attention or affection only when he/she acts in certain ways.). Incongruence can lead to anxiety, which the individual may attempt to alleviate by denying or distorting the self and/or the experience.
As described by Murray Bowen,‭ “‬emotional triangles‭” ‬are associated with:
stress and conflict

Emotional triangles are a central part of Bowen's theory of family pathology.

a. CORRECT According to Bowen, emotional triangles help reduce conflict and stress. For example, if there is a great deal of conflict between mom and dad, they can triangulate a child into the relationship and reduce the conflict between them by focusing their attention on the child.
Troiden’s (1988) Gay/Lesbian (Homosexual) Identity Development Model distinguishes between four age-related stages:
1. sensitization-usually occurs in middle childhood. During this stage, the individual feels different from and experiences less opposite-sex interests than his/her peers and begins to have homosexual feelings without understanding the implications of those feelings for self-identity.

2. self-recognition-realize that they are homosexual at the onset of puberty

3. identity assumption - begins to‭ “‬come out‭” ‬to friends in the homosexual community.

4. commitment
According to Atkinson,‭ ‬Morten,‭ ‬and Sue’s‭ (‬1993‭) ‬Racial/Cultural Identity Development Model,‭ ‬an African-American therapy client in the conformity stage will most likely:
prefer a white therapist

The Racial/Cultural Identity Development Model consists of five stages: conformity, dissonance, resistance and immersion, introspection, and integrative awareness.

don't CONFORM to DIS, RESIST IMMediately this INTROduction to SYN

During the initial conformity stage, African Americans have positive attitudes toward Whites and negative attitudes toward their own group; and, in therapy, they are likely to prefer a White therapist.

"be unwilling to self-disclose to a white therapist" is characteristic of African American therapy clients in the dissonance, resistance and immersion, or introspection stage.

"say his/her problems are directly related to racial oppression" is characteristic of clients in the dissonance or resistance and immersion stage.

"prefer a therapist who has expertise in working with African Americans" is true about African American clients in the introspection or integrative awareness stage.
People recalling childhood memories of a trauma for the first time while under hypnosis will usually:
believe the accuracy of the memories while under hypnosis and will likely continue to believe them when no longer hypnotized whether or not the memories are true.

One of the problems with memories recalled under hypnosis is that people tend to be more certain about the accuracy of those memories, whether they are true or false.

The research has shown that people are often more willing to accept false memories when those memories have been retrieved under hypnosis.
Helms’s White Racial Identity Development Model

CDR – PIA
Coke = white
Coke Drug Rehab – Pee In A cup
Helms’s White Racial Identity Development Model distinguishes between six identity statuses (stages): contact, disintegration, reintegration, pseudo-independence, immersion-emersion, and autonomy.
To incorporate the value of‭ ‬personalismo‭ ‬into therapy,‭ ‬a therapist will:
display genuine interest in the client by asking about his/her family and work or school.

Personalismo sounds like what it is – i.e., communication that fosters warmth, rapport, and a personal connection.

Although formalismo (a formal communication style) is generally preferred by Latino/Hispanic clients during initial therapy sessions, personalismo is preferred once the therapeutic alliance has been established.
Melanie Klein considered the actions of children during play therapy to be equivalent to an adult client's free associations.‭ ‬Anna Freud,‭ ‬in commenting on Klein's conclusions:
argued that the actions of children during play therapy are better considered a form of‭ "‬acting out.‭"

Anna Freud regarded play therapy as a useful tool in the analysis of children but rejected Klein's use of play therapy as a substitute for free association.
According to Carl Rogers,‭ ‬a therapist is‭ “‬congruent‭” ‬when the therapist:
is authentic and‭ ‬nondefensive.

Rogers proposed that, for therapy to be effective, the therapist must provide three facilitative conditions – unconditional positive regard, congruence (genuineness), and accurate empathic understanding.
For Gestalt therapists,‭ ‬maladaptive behavior:
reflects a "growth disorder"

Like other humanistic therapists, Gestalt therapists view the individual as having an innate tendency for positive growth.

For Gestaltians, neurotic behavior reflects interference with natural growth and a resulting lack of integration.
With regard to acculturation,‭ ‬a member of a racial/cultural minority group who adopts the values,‭ ‬attitudes,‭ ‬and customs of his/her own minority culture but rejects those of the dominant‭ (‬majority‭) ‬is:
separate

Berry (1987) distinguishes between the four levels of acculturation listed in the answers to this question.

A person is separate when he/she rejects the majority culture and identifies with his/her own minority culture.
Berry - 4 levels of acculturation
A marginalized individual does not identify with his/her own minority culture or with the majority culture.

An integrated person identifies with his/her own minority culture but also adopts aspects of the majority culture.

A person is separate when he/she rejects the majority culture and identifies with his/her own minority culture.

A person is assimilated when he/she adopts the characteristics of the majority culture and rejects his/her own minority culture.
As defined by Jung,‭ “‬individuation‭” ‬refers to:
the integration of conscious and unconscious aspects of the psyche.

Jung described individuation as a lifelong process that consists of integrating or harmonizing components of the conscious and unconscious.
For practitioners of humanistic psychotherapy,‭ ‬psychopathology is the result of:
blocked potential

Therapists classified as humanists share a belief in the inherent capacity for humans to grow toward the achievement of their potential (i.e., to achieve self-actualization).

Neurosis and psychosis are generally viewed as the result of interference with the natural potential for growth and self-actualization.
In therapy,‭ ‬an object relations family therapist would be most interested in which of the following‭?
interpreting focused and contextual transferences.

Object relations family therapy is a psychodynamic approach and relies on many of the techniques associated with psychodynamic psychotherapy

These authors also distinguish between two types of transference — focused and contextual — and state that the latter is particularly important in family therapy.
Freud
(mnemonic)
Freud
Orphan Annie was a Pretty Little Girl
Group Tx Stages
(mnemonic)
Group Tx Stages - Forming, storming, norming, performing, adjourning.
HALEY - Strategic Family Tx
(mnemonic)
HALEY
STRATEGIC - THINK MILITARY
If you want to fool the enemy you give a PARADOXICAL DIRECTIVE
REFRAMING information to the enemy for peace talks makes it more amenable to the enemy.
CIRCULAR QUESTIONING could be people going round and round about a situation
in peace talks (United Nations).

Haley's comet strategically hit the earth - Strategic Family Therapy.
Helms White Identity
(mnemonic)
Helms White Identity
CDR – PIA
Coke = white
Coke Drug Rehab – Pee In A cup
Mystification - Masking
(mnemonic)
Mystification - Masking
Symmetrical Communication
(mnemonic)
Symmetrical - equal(ity) as between partners.
Racial/cultural identity development:
(mnemonic)
Racial/cultural identity development:
don't CONFORM to DIS, RESIST IMMediately this INTROduction to SYN.
From the perspective of Gestalt therapy,‭ ‬introjection is:
a boundary disturbance

Gestaltians use the term introjection to describe an overly permeable boundary between the person and the environment.

For Gestaltians, neurotic behavior is often the result of a disturbance in the boundary between the person and his/her external environment. Introjection is one type of boundary disturbance and occurs when a person accepts values, beliefs, etc. from the environment without actually understanding or fully assimilating them.
Atkinson,‭ ‬Morten,‭ ‬and Sue’s‭ (‬1993‭) ‬Racial/Cultural Identity Development Model proposes that people in which of the following stages begin to question their rejection of all aspects of the dominant culture and absolute loyalty to their own culture‭?

CDR/I I IA
introspection

The Racial/Cultural Identity Development Model distinguishes between five stages: conformity, dissonance, resistance and immersion, introspection, and integrative awareness.

During the introspection stage, the individual begins to question the unequivocal position that he adopted during the previous resistance-immersion stage with regard to his own culture and the dominant culture.
High-context and Low-context communication
High-context communication is anchored in the situation and relies heavily on nonverbal cues and group identification and understanding. High-context communication is characteristic of many ethnic/cultural minority groups.

Low-context communication relies primarily on the explicit, verbal part of a message and is characteristic of Euro-American culture.
symmetrical and complimentary communication patterns

(mm in symmetrical means equality)
Family therapists distinguish between two types of family communication patterns – symmetrical and complementary.

Symmetrical communications reflect equality between communicators but can escalate into a “one-upsmanship” game when each participant tries to outdo the other.

Complementary communication reflects inequality between communicators.
Cross’s Black Racial Identity Development Model

5 stages - The Jackson 5

P-E E I-E I I-C
Cross’s Black Racial Identity Development Model distinguishes between five stages:
1. pre-encounter
2. encounter
3. immersion-emersion
4. internalization
5. internalization-commitment

Cross’s model is based on the premise that African American identity development is directly linked to racial oppression. During the initial pre-encounter stage, race has low salience.
According to Irvin Yalom,‭ __________ ‬in group therapy is the analogue of the therapist-client relationship in individual therapy.
cohesiveness

Yalom argues that the therapeutic relationship is the sine qua non of effective individual therapy and, therefore, that there must be a comparable phenomenon in group therapy.

Yalom uses the term cohesiveness to refer to the various relationships that occur in a group – i.e., the relationships between group members and between each member and the therapist and the relationship between each member and the group itself. For Yalom, cohesiveness is the primary mode of help in group therapy, with highly cohesive groups having better outcomes.
"formula task"
In solution-focused therapy, a “formula task” is to help the couple identify positive aspects of their relationship that, in turn, can lead to solutions to their marital difficulties.

e.g. identify things in their relationship that they would like to continue
Grief,‭ ‬role disputes,‭ ‬role transitions,‭ ‬and‭ ‬interpersonal deficits are the primary targets of:
IPT

The four problem areas identified in this question (grief, role disputes, role transitions, and interpersonal deficits) are all related to interpersonal issues.

Practitioners of interpersonal therapy (ITP) focus on one or more of the problems areas identified in this question.
an "ordeal"
e.g. A therapist instructs a client who suffers from insomnia to polish his hardwood floors for at least two hours whenever he wakes up during the night.

For the exam, you should have paradoxical techniques and ordeals associated with Milton Erickson and Jay Haley (who was strongly influenced by Erickson).
archetypes
Archetypes are primordial images that are part of the collective unconscious, are passed down from one generation to the next, and cause people to experience certain phenomena in a universal way.

Jung considered the archetypes to be an important contributor to personality development.
Yalom stages of group therapy
Yalom describes the first few months of group therapy as involving three stages:
1. orientation, hesitant participation, search for meaning, dependency (e.g. turn primarily to the therapist for answers to their questions);
2. conflict, dominance, rebellion (e.g. a struggle for power)
3. development of cohesiveness.
The primary difference between feminist and nonsexist therapy is that,‭ ‬in contrast to nonsexist therapy,‭ ‬feminist therapy:

hint - PP - the PERSONAL is POLITICAL
Marion's Professional Psychology...
emphasizes political values and social change.

Feminist therapy and non-sexist therapy share a number of characteristics but differ in terms of their emphasis on sociopolitical contributors to mental health problems.

Feminist therapy is the more political of the two types of therapy and is based on the assumption that the “personal is political.”

Both types of therapy reject traditional sex-role stereotypes, promote an egalitarian therapist-client relationship and recognizes the impact of sexism on mental health.
Health Belief Model

e.g. Melanoma is PREVENTABLE by wearing sunscreen, I am MOTIVATED to take action b/c it runs in the family, I have no problem wearing sunscreen whenever I go outside to prevent melanoma (and wrinkles)
According to the Health Belief Model, a person’s willingness to take appropriate health-related actions is related to the person’s beliefs about
(1) his susceptibility to the illness;
(2) the consequences of the illness;
(3) the benefits of and barriers to taking appropriate action.

Interventions based on the Health Belief Model focus on the individual’s knowledge about the illness and methods for avoiding it; motivation to take action; and self-efficacy beliefs.
Howard et al stages of therapy

(3 r's)
Howard and his colleagues (1996) have identified a predictable relationship between number of therapy sessions and therapy outcomes.

Howard et al.’s phase model distinguishes between three phases of psychotherapy:
1. remoralization
2. remediation
3. rehabilitation.

Remoralization occurs during the first few therapy sessions and is characterized by a decline in feelings of hopelessness
Object relations family therapy
Object relations family therapy is psychodynamic and links intrapsychic phenomena to current family relationships.
Haley’s strategic family therapy
Haley’s strategic family therapy was influenced by the communication/interaction school of family therapy and emphasizes the role of interaction in family functioning.

For strategic family therapists, a symptom is an interpersonal phenomenon that represents an attempt to control a relationship.
Asian and Asian-American clients (recent immigrants)
Asian and Asian-American clients, especially those who have a strong ethnic identity or who have not assimilated into the dominant (mainstream) culture, generally prefer structured goal-oriented therapies.

"knowledgable expert" describes the most effective role for therapists working with Asian clients, especially those who are recent immigrants.

Asian clients are likely to expect the therapist to be an expert rather than a colleague.

When working with Asian clients, a more formal approach, especially during initial sessions, is usually most effective.
Kohlberg’s cognitive-developmental model identifies of gender-role acquisition
Kohlberg’s cognitive-developmental model identifies three stages of gender-role acquisition:
1. (2-3 yrs) gender identity is the first stage in the acquisition of gender-role behaviors
2. (4 yrs) gender stability
3. (6-7 yrs) gender constancy