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86 Cards in this Set

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The Leiter International Performance Scale can be used to assess the intelligence of:
deaf and language-impaired children.

The distinctive feature of the Leiter International Performance Scale is its non-reliance on verbal instructions or responses. Because of this feature, it is an appropriate test to use with deaf and language disabled individuals.

The Haptic Intelligence Scale for the Adult Blind can be used to assess the intelligence of the blind.

Tests used to assess the intellectual development of infants under 2 include the Bayley Scales of Infant Development and the Cattell Infant Intelligence Scale.
Dissociative Amnesia most commonly involves:
retrospective gaps in memory.

Dissociative Amnesia is characterized by an inability to recall important personal information that is often related to a traumatic event.

Dissociative Amnesia can take several forms but most frequently involves a retrospective gap or series of gaps in the recall of aspects of the individual's past.

Short-term memory is usually not affected.

Memory loss is most often related to the traumatic event and does not usually entail widespread retrograde amnesia.
If, as intended, items included in the MMPI-2 distinguish between "normals" and people diagnosed as schizophrenic, depressed, paranoid, etc., this provides evidence of the MMPI-2's:
criterion-related validity.

If scores on the MMPI correlate with diagnosis, we can say that the MMPI has concurrent validity, which is a type of criterion-related validity. Since the test was designed originally as a diagnostic tool, it is important that it have adequate concurrent validity.
As defined by DSM-IV, the primary difference between a manic episode and hypomania is that in the latter:
there is no marked impairment in social or occupational functioning.

Hypomania is characterized by symptoms similar to those of mania except that they are not sufficiently severe to cause impairment in social or occupational functioning or to require hospitalization. In addition, delusions are never present in hypomania but may be present in mania.
Employees are most likely to accept innovation and change on the job if:
they have participated in the decision-making process.

If the changes and innovations are the result of decision-making that employees participate in, the employees are more likely to accept those changes and innovations.
A researcher wants to correlate gender with reaction time (as measured by seconds). The appropriate correlation coefficient in this situation would be which of the following:

The point-biserial correlation coefficient is the appropriate coefficient to assess the relationship between a true dichotomous variable (in this case, gender) with an interval or ratio variable (in this case, reaction time measured in seconds).
You obtain a grant to investigate the reasons why people work. Based on your knowledge of the existing research, your hypothesis is that workers will most often cite which of the following as the most important reason for working:
In a large-scale study involving employees in eight countries, it was found that the income-producing aspect of work was most commonly cited as the most important reason for working. The second and third reasons, respectively, were found to be intrinsic satisfaction with work and interpersonal contact.
Which of the following types of validity would you be MOST interested in when designing a test to predict academic success in graduate school:

When a test is being used to predict performance on a criterion, you would be most interested in the test's criterion-related validity (e.g., in its correlations with measures of academic achievement).
When designing a research study, an investigator will want to choose a design that reduces potential threats to the study's internal validity. In other words, the investigator will be concerned about which of the following:
maturation,history, statistical regression.

A research design has internal validity if it allows the researcher to determine whether or not the independent variable and the dependent variable are causally related. For the licensing exam, you should be familiar with the "generic" threats to internal and external validity identified by Campbell and Stanley (1963).

These are three of the threats to internal validity described by Campbell and Stanley. Threats to internal validity are factors irrelevant to the research hypothesis that cause changes in dependent variable scores. Maturation refers to internal processes, such as fatigue or boredom, that affect outcome of the dependent variable. History refers to extraneous events outside or within the experimental situation that affect outcome on the dependent variable. Statistical regression is the tendency for extreme scores to regress towards the mean; in a study in which extreme scores were obtained on a pretest, any change in scores on the posttest could be a function of regression rather than the independent variable.
To obtain a "coefficient of stability," you would:
administer a test twice to the same group of examinees on two separate occasions and correlate their two sets of scores.

The coefficient of stability is a type of reliability coefficient that indicates how stable scores are over time.

To obtain a coefficient of stability (aka test-retest reliability coefficient), the same measure is administered to a sample of examinees on two separate occasions, and the scores obtained by the examinees are correlated.
Memory loss among patients suffering from Alzheimer's Dementia is believed to be caused by a deterioration of neurons that secrete:

You may have been aware that acetylcholine is associated with motor functions. It has also been linked to memory processes.
An individual's "phenotype":
is determined by a combination of his or her genetic inheritance and environment.

Phenotype refers to an individual's observable characteristics that are attributable to the influence of both his/her genotype (genetic make-up) and environment.
In treating a client suffering from Panic Disorder, a therapist adopting Beck's cognitive approach would initially:
help the client see how he misinterprets the meaning of his symptoms.

As defined by Beck, the "goals of cognitive therapy are to correct faulty information processing and to modify dysfunctional beliefs and assumptions that maintain maladaptive behaviors and emotions"

From the perspective of cognitive therapy, Panic Disorder stems from "catastrophic misinterpretations" of bodily sensations and mental experiences. The first few sessions of therapy are aimed at clarifying the nature of the client's symptoms and how he/she misinterprets them.
The ability of the experimenter in Milgram's "obedience studies" to control the behavior of subjects assigned the role of "teacher" can be attributed to the power that the experimenter had. Specifically, the experimenter can be said to have had which type of power:
legitimate power.

French and Raven (1959) identified five types of social power: coercive, reward, expert, referent, and legitimate. In Milgram's studies, the experimenter had legitimate power; i.e., he was seen to be a legitimate authority figure in the context of the experiment.

A person has referent power when others want to identify with that person.

A person has coercive power when he/she has control of punishments.

Finally, a person has expert power when he/she is believed to have superior knowledge or experience.
A Gestalt therapist would most likely ___________ a client's questions:

Gestalt therapists view questions as fostering intellectualization and masking true feelings. Thus, Gestalt therapists typically discourage their clients' questions.
Some psychologists suggest that achievement tests can be used as substitutes for aptitude tests because:
past accomplishments are a good indicator of what can be expected in the future.

A distinction is often made in the literature between achievement and aptitude tests. Strictly speaking, achievement tests assess extent of past learning in classrooms or other controlled settings, while aptitude tests focus on future behavior, in particular capacity to learn.
The standard error of estimate is used to estimate:
the range within which an examinee's criterion score is likely to fall given his predictor score.

The standard error of estimate indicates the amount of error to be expected in an examinee's predicted criterion score as a result of the imperfect validity of the predictor. It is used to construct a range within which an examinee's predicted criterion score is likely to fall given his or her predictor score.
For most children, which of the following behaviors is the LAST to develop:
speaks two-word sentences.

Of the behaviors listed, speaking in two-word sentences (telegraphic speech) occurs last.

Separation anxiety begins at about 8 months;

stranger anxiety at 10 months;

and solitary play at 16 months.
College graduates score higher than high school graduates and high school dropouts on a test of achievement motivation. This is evidence that the test has good:
construct validity.

A test's validity refers to its usefulness, or the degree to which it measures what it is supposed to measure.

Construct validity is the extent to which a test measures the theoretical construct or trait it was designed to measure (e.g., achievement motivation, self-esteem). The ability of a test to discriminate between groups with different levels of this construct is one source of evidence of the test's construct validity.
Discriminant (divergent) validity is:
a method for establishing a measure's construct validity. A measure has discriminant validity when it does not correlate highly with measures designed to assess unrelated constructs.
A test has content validity:
to the degree that it adequately samples the content domain which it purports to sample. For example, a comprehensive psychology exam would have poor content validity if it only contained questions on methods of behavior therapy. Content validity is of primary importance for tests that sample an examinee's knowledge of a given content domain (e.g, final exams, the psychology licensing test). Content validity is established primarily through the judgment of experts.
Concurrent validity is:
a type of criterion-related validity. A test has concurrent validity when it correlates highly with criterion scores obtained at about the same time that the test was administered.
As a child begins calling the horse and cow by their correct names more consistently, his parents begin to whisper their "clues," then mouth the clues, and finally stop giving the child any clues whatsoever. This procedure is known as:
The gradual reduction or withdrawal of prompts is called fading.

Thinning is the process of gradually reducing the frequency of reinforcement (e.g., of switching from a continuous to an intermittent schedule of reinforcement).
For the cognitive developmentalists, moral development is related to:
interactions with the environment.

Included in the category of "cognitive developmentalists" are Piaget and Kohlberg.

Of the responses given, this one is the best (but certainly not the optimal) description of Piaget and Kohlberg's views. In contrast to Freud and the social learning theorists, cognitive developmentalists view moral development as resulting primarily from interactions with adults and peers in the individual's environment rather than a transmission of values.
The term "blue collar blues" has been used to describe the morale of construction and manufacturing laborers. Studies investigating the attitudes of these workers toward their jobs have generally found that their job dissatisfaction is due primarily to:
a lack of promotional opportunities.

Research on job satisfaction in the past two decades has generally found a trend toward increasing dissatisfaction at all job levels. The reasons for dissatisfaction, however, vary somewhat for different job levels and different types of workers.

Studies have found that immobility (a lack of opportunities for promotion to more prestigious jobs) is a primary factor in the dissatisfaction of blue collar workers (Sheppard and Herrick, 1972).
Research on equity theory suggests that:
underpayment and overpayment should both be avoided.

Equity theory is associated with the effects of over- and underpayment.

Although overpayment can produce an increase in productivity, the increase is only temporary. In addition, overpayment sets up an inequitable situation that can have adverse effects on the performance of others.
A number of investigators have attempted to identify factors associated with intelligence. With regard to age, investigations combining cross-sectional and longitudinal methodologies have found that:
observed age-related declines are largely attributable to "inter-generational differences".

Cross-sectional studies typically find age-related declines in intelligence. Studies using longitudinal methodology or a combination of cross-sectional and longitudinal methodologies, however, have suggested that this finding is an artifact of the research methodology used and that such declines are actually due to inter-generational or cohort effects that are probably related to differences between generations in educational and cultural experiences. Longitudinal studies have suggested that when declines do occur, they do not occur until after age 60 and they are usually the result of health problems rather than age per se.
According to Kohlberg's moral development theory, children who are about ten years old will probably be in the second stage of the preconventional morality level. At this stage children act in accordance to rules because:
the consequences of their actions are desirable.

At this stage of moral development, children are aware of consequences but they do not have a good understanding of right and wrong. Kohlberg gives the example of a 10-year old boy who was asked about "being a good son." His response was, "be good to your father and he will be good to you."
With regard to attitude change, the "inoculation" model can be used to:
increase an individual's resistance to persuasion.

The concept of inoculation, proposed by McGuire, was borrowed from the medical model. It is based on the assumption that a person will be better able to resist a persuasive communication when he/she has been "inoculated" against it. Inoculation involves providing weak arguments against a position and counterarguments refuting those arguments.
A person taking an MAO inhibitor should be most careful about avoiding:
beer, liver, and spoiled bananas.

The consumption of certain foods while taking an MAO inhibitor can trigger a hypertensive crisis.

Of the foods listed, these are the most dangerous. While aged cheese must be avoided, cottage cheese in moderate quantities is okay. Also, rhubarb, soy sauce, and yogurt are not dangerous as long as they are consumed in small quantities.
Trainability tests:
are work samples that incorporate a structured period of learning and evaluation.

Trainability tests are similar to work samples except they are given to people who currently do not have sufficient skills, knowledge, or ability to perform the job, and they are used to determine if a job applicant is likely to benefit from training.
Ex-smokers are most likely to lapse (smoke):
as the result of anxiety, frustration, or depression.

Negative affect has been associated with relapse not only for cigarette smoking but also for alcoholism, heroin use, and other addictions. Marlatt and his colleagues, for example, found that 52% of relapse reports by smokers, alcoholics, and opioid users implicated anxiety, depression, and other negative emotions.
Research indicates that the nature of communication networks can affect worker satisfaction, group performance, and leadership effectiveness. For instance, when tasks are complex and unstructured:
a decentralized communication network is associated with better group performance.

Much of the research on communication networks divides networks into two main types -- centralized and decentralized. The research indicates that decentralized networks, in which no one individual has greater access to information, are best for complex, unstructured tasks that have a number of different solutions. Centralized networks, on the other hand, are better for simple, structured tasks.
Dr. Cooper is appointed by the court to evaluate a 42-year old man who is a plaintiff in a court proceeding. With regard to privilege, Dr. Cooper should be aware that:
privilege is waived in this situation but Dr. Cooper should inform the plaintiff of the limits on confidentiality.

There are many reasons why a court might appoint a psychologist to evaluate a party in a court case. In these situations, privilege is waived -- obviously, the evaluation would serve no useful purpose if the court did not have the right to access the information obtained during the course of the evaluation. A psychologist should, however, always inform the individual of the limits of confidentiality in this situation.
When treating a child for school phobia, it is generally agreed that the first intervention should be to:
get the child back to school as soon as possible.

Although it would probably be important to determine the cause of a child's school phobia, most clinicians agree that the first intervention should be to get the child back to school as soon as possible. For instance, outcome studies of school phobia have found the most effective treatment for school phobia to be getting the child back to school immediately and praising him/her at the end of each school day for any progress made.
The predictions of goal-setting theory appear to be most accurate for:
easy tasks and people high in need for achievement.

While Edwin Locke (1968) considered his goal-setting theory to be applicable to all situations, the research suggests that it may apply better to certain tasks and certain people.

There is some evidence that the predictions of goal setting theory are more accurate for simple tasks and for people who are high in need for achievement (who are more likely to commit to goals).
Underlying feminist therapy is the assumption that:
symptoms are related more to gender role and expectations than to pathology.

A basic premise of feminist therapy is that human experience can only be understood within the context of interactions between the person and the environment. Consequently, feminist therapists consider social and economic conditions to be important contributors to an individual's behavior.

A distinctive feature of feminist therapy is its view of symptoms as being related to traditional female roles, as adaptive survival mechanisms, and as arbitrary labels rather than as signs of pathology.
Which of the following cognitive abilities is LEAST likely to show a decrease after age 60:
mathematical skill.

Crystallized abilities (e.g., math skills, vocabulary, general information) are less likely than fluid abilities (attention span, abstract reasoning, concept formation) to be affected by age.
When using the technique known as "inoculation," you are trying to:
make someone less susceptible to persuasion by providing her with arguments against her position and refutations of those arguments.

Inoculation is based on the medical model. It involves inoculating someone against an argument by providing both an argument and a refutation of that argument.
When working with a client from a different racial group, a psychotherapist generally should:
acknowledge an awareness of the difference.
For Bowen, "triangles" form in families in order to:
re-establish homeostasis.

Triangles help reduce tension and increase stability and, thereby, restore homeostasis.
An important implication of Fiedler's "contingency theory" of leadership is that:
an effective manager may become ineffective if the situation changes in certain ways.

Fiedler's contingency theory of leadership proposes that a group's performance depends on the interaction between the group leader's style (high LPC versus low LPC) and the favorableness of the situation. (High LPC leaders rate their least preferred coworker favorably, while low LPC leaders rate their least preferred coworker unfavorably. A situation is favorable to the extent that the leader has influence, tasks are structured, and the leader is in a position to reward employees for good performance.)

Fiedler believed that different leadership styles are more effective in different situations. Specifically, he believed that low LPC leaders perform best in very favorable and unfavorable situations, while high LPC leaders perform best in moderately favorable situations. Therefore, if the situation changes, at least in terms of "favorableness," an effective leader can actually become ineffective (and vice versa).
The therapeutic technique known as stress inoculation can be viewed as a combination of which of the following techniques:
cognitive restructuring and graded rehearsal.

Stress inoculation is a cognitive therapy that involves teaching clients both the cognitive and physical skills they need to cope with future stressful situations.

During the course of stress inoculation, the client learns to distinguish between ineffective and effective thoughts, actions, etc. and is taught alternative cognitive and behavioral skills that lead to effective coping in stressful situations. Once these skills have been learned, the client begins to apply them to real-life situations, usually beginning with the least stress-producing situation and then gradually working up to the most stress-producing situation.
A child exhibiting an anxious-avoidant pattern of attachment:
shows little distress when separated from his mother and turns away from her when she returns.

In the "strange situation," anxious-avoidant (also called insecure-avoidant) children are uninterested in exploration, show little distress when separated from their mothers, and avoid her when she returns. Both types of anxious attachment result when a caretaker provides inconsistent caretaking. When the caretaker is also resentful of his/her child's demands and overtly rejecting or, alternatively, responds in an overzealous way, the child is likely to exhibit the anxious-avoidant attachment pattern rather than the anxious-ambivalent pattern.
Intelligence test scores obtained by children after age two are likely to:
have moderate validity for predicting subsequent intelligence test scores.

Preschool tests administered to children aged two and above generally have moderate validity in predicting later IQ test scores. Coefficients generally range from about .65 to .83, with the highest coefficients being obtained for shorter time intervals between test administrations.
In factor analysis, you would choose to extract oblique factors when you believe:
the underlying factors measured by the tests are dependent.

Two types of rotation can be performed when conducting a factor analysis. An orthogonal rotation produces uncorrelated factors, while an oblique rotation produces correlated factors.

Oblique factors are correlated. Therefore, knowing a person's status on one factor provides some information about his status on the other factor(s). An oblique rotation would be done when the investigator believes that the factors underlying a set of tests are correlated (dependent).
Among the subtests on the WISC-IV, which can be used as a substitute for Digit Span?
The Arithmetic subtest can be used as a substitute for the Digit Span subtest on the WISC-IV.
Which of the following rating scales does NOT belong with the others:
forced choice.

Paired comparison, ranking, and forced distribution scales are all relative measures that require comparing employees to each other. The forced-choice scale is an absolute measure that requires the rater to select an alternative from two or more alternatives that best describes an individual employee.
Which of the following is true about the transformation of a normally-shaped distribution of raw scores to a distribution of percentile ranks:
large differences in raw scores at the extremes of the distribution can result in small differences in percentile ranks.

Small differences near the median of the raw score distribution can result in large percentile rank differences, while large differences in the extremes of the distribution can look much smaller when the scores are converted to percentile ranks. To illustrate, assume that a 200-item test is administered to 100 people and that the distribution of scores is normally-shaped and has a median of 100. If the two lowest scores in the distribution are 1 and 11, these two scores will be converted to percentile ranks of 1 and 2 (a small percentile rank difference). In contrast, a ten-point difference between scores in the middle of the raw score distribution is likely to result in a much larger spread of percentile ranks.
When using overcorrection to alter a child's acting-out behaviors, restitution and positive practice may be supplemented by which of the following if the child refuses to comply:
physical guidance.

In some situations, physically guiding the individual through the desirable behavior can help overcome noncompliance. This technique must be used with caution, however, especially with acting-out children and adolescents who may respond to it with increased resistance.
The correlation coefficient for two maximally dissimilar measures of the same trait:

The word "trait" should have helped you recognize that this question is asking about construct validity.

The correlation between two different measures of the same trait is a monotrait-heteromethod (same trait-different method) coefficient. When this correlation is high, it provides evidence of convergent validity which, in turn, provides evidence of construct validity.

The monotrait-monomethod coefficient is the correlation of a measure with itself and provides an estimate of the measure's reliability.
A potential negative side effect of benzodiazepine use is:
anterograde amnesia.

The major side effects of the benzodiazepines are sedation (which may actually be a desired effect), impairment in mechanical and psychomotor abilities, and anterograde amnesia.
"Change, through therapy, is accompanied by stress, and the therapeutic system must be capable of dealing with it." This statement was made by:

For Minuchin, change is often precipitated by stress. Consequently, in therapy, the therapist induces stress to affect appropriate structural changes.
Which of the following is LEAST true about anorexia nervosa:
anorexics usually recognize that their eating behaviors are abnormal.

This symptom is more characteristic of bulimics. Anorexics are more likely to deny their disorder.
The underutilization of mental health services by Asian Americans results from cultural values that inhibit self-referral and:
cultural values that encourage resolution of problems within the family.
An assumption underlying the notion of "groupthink" is that:
pressures toward uniformity limit task effectiveness.

According to Janis (1972, 1982), groupthink results when groups become excessively cohesive.

Groupthink is characterized by a decrease in willingness to consider divergent points of view, resulting in inappropriate decisions and actions (although not necessarily more extreme ones).
Cerebral palsy, a disorder involving a lack of control over muscle movements, is caused by which of the following:
brain lesion.

Cerebral palsy, which involves motor deficits, is associated with damage to the brain cells, possibly as the result of a lack of oxygen during the birth process.
As opposed to fairness, bias is characterized by all of the following except:
it involves considering the decisions made or actions taken on the basis of test scores.

This is a tough one. Fairness and bias are related terms but have slightly different meanings. Fairness refers to a value judgment about the decisions made or actions taken on the basis of test scores, while bias is a statistical characteristic of the test scores or predictions made on the basis of those scores.
Which of the following statements are true about the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales (5th edition)?

1. It is valid for assessing individuals with limited English, deafness, or communication disorders.

2. The Full Scale IQ, Verbal IQ, Nonverbal IQ, and five Factor Indexes have a mean of 100 and SD of 16.

3. It is only appropriate for individuals ranging in age from 5 to 65.

4. The development of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales was based on a hierarchical model of intelligence with a global “g” factor.
1 and 4.

Statement #2 is not correct. While the mean is 100, the standard deviation is 15.

Statements #2 and #3 (age range is 2 and 85+) are not correct.
To his dismay, Bob G. gets a C- on his statistics midterm. When discussing his grade with the statistics professor, Bob is most likely to attribute the grade to __________ factors, while the professor is likely to attribute the grade to __________ factors:
situational; dispositional.

This question requires you to distinguish between Bob's and the professor's attributions for Bob's failure. According to Jones and Nisbett (1971), actors are likely to attribute actions that have negative results to situational factors, while observers are likely to attribute such actions to characteristics of the actor (dispositional factors).
A "communality" is best described as:
the proportion of variance accounted for by multiple factors in a single variable.

A communality is a measure of "common variance."

In factor analysis, a separate communality is determined for each variable (test). The communality represents the total amount of variability accounted for in a test by the identified factors and is a reflection of the amount of variance that the test has in common with the other measures included in the factor analysis.
Criterion contamination has the effect of:
artificially increasing the predictor's criterion-related validity.

Criterion contamination occurs when a rater's knowledge of a person's predictor performance biases how he/she is rated on the criterion.

Criterion contamination has the effect of artificially inflating the correlation between the predictor and the criterion.
Generally speaking, ___________ schedules of reinforcement are best for getting a behavior going, and ___________ schedules are best for keeping it going:
continuos; intermittent.

Frequent and consistent (continuous) reinforcement is required to teach a new behavior. However, once the new behavior is occurring at an acceptable rate, thinning the schedule to an intermittent one strengthens the behavior and increases its resistance to extinction.
The predictions made by social comparison theory apply when:
one has no objective measure of comparison.

Festinger's social comparison theory proposes that, when there is no objective measure of comparison for our attitudes and behavior, we seek out others against which to make comparisons, especially others who we admire or we believe are like us.
In the population, the distribution of scores on a dependent variable is rectangular. If a very large number of samples of size 35 are randomly drawn from the population and the mean of each sample is calculated, you would expect the resulting "sampling distribution of means" to be:

As predicted by the Central Limit Theorem, the sampling distribution of means increasingly approaches normal as the sample size increases regardless of the shape of the population distribution. A sample size of 35 is sufficient for the sampling distribution to be normal (or pretty close to it).
Guided imagery is associated with a number of disciplines including Tibetan Buddhism, Jungian psychotherapy, and Gestalt psychodrama. For a cognitive therapist, guided imagery is most likely to be used to:
facilitate cognitive restructuring.

Even if you are unfamiliar with guided imagery, you should have been able to pick this as the correct answer since cognitive restructuring is the primary goal of cognitive therapy. Note that, when using this technique, the therapist does not direct a specific change in thinking (as implied by response "b") but, instead, prompts or suggests the direction of the change to the client.
Test A has a correlation of .20 with a criterion, while Test B has a correlation of .40. This indicates that Test B:
explains four times as much variance in criterion scores as Test A.

This question is asking about "shared variability." How much variability is shared between Test A and the criterion and how much is shared between Test B and the criterion are determined by squaring the correlation coefficients.

The correlation between Test A and the criterion is .20; therefore, the amount of shared variability is .04 (.20 squared). The correlation between Test B and the criterion is .40; the amount of shared variability is .16 (.40 squared). Thus, Test B shares four times as much variability with the criterion as Test A.
In contrast to an individual suffering from an amnestic disorder that is due to a medical condition, a person experiencing Dissociative Amnesia is more likely to exhibit:
an inability to recall autobiographical information.

Dissociative Amnesia is characterized by an inability to recall important personal information that is often related to a trauma or stressful event.

A distinguishing feature of Dissociative Amnesia is that it involves an inability to recall personal information.
aviodance-aviodance conflict
Dollard and Miller distinguished between three basic types of conflicts (avoidance-avoidance, approach-approach, and approach-avoidance) and made predictions about what behaviors could be expected in each conflict.

An avoidance-avoidance conflict produces vacillation.

approach-approach - choose one of two options and feel confident that it was the correct one
A discriminant function analysis would be used to predict:
the criterion group that an examinee can be expected to belong to.

Discriminant function analysis is a statistical technique used to classify individuals into criterion groups (e.g., successful/unsuccessful) based on their scores on two or more predictors.
Choice of an appropriate average item difficulty level for test items requires considering:
the probability that an item can be answered correctly by guessing.

The choice of an optimal difficulty level is directly affected by the probability of answering a question correctly just by guessing. The optimal difficulty level for a true/false test, for example, is .75.
An analysis of covariance is used to:
statistically control variability in the dependent variable due to the effects of an extraneous variable.

When using the ANCOVA, the extraneous variable is the "covariate" and its effects on the dependent variable are statistically removed so that it is easier to detect the effects of the independent variable on the dependent variable.
As defined by Anne Anastasi, the concept of "relevance":
is an ethical issue.

As described by Anastasi in her book Psychological Testing, relevance means that test scores are collected and used only if they are relevant to some valid purpose. Administering a test simply to satisfy one's curiosity would not fulfill the requirement of relevance but would, instead, represent an invasion of privacy. In other words, relevance is basically an ethical issue.
When an interest test yields "ipsative scores," this means that:
scores indicate the relative strengths of an examinee's interests.

If an interest test yields ipsative scores, this indicates an individual examinee's relative standing in terms of the interests measured by the test. Ipsative scores permit intraindividual comparisons but not interindividual comparisons.
Charging telephone customers for using directory assistance to obtain phone numbers in order to decrease the usage of directory assistance is an application of which of the following:
response cost.

In this situation, money is being taken away following a behavior in order to decrease that behavior. In operant terms, this is referred to as negative punishment. Response cost is a type of negative punishment. It involves removing a specific stimulus (e.g., money) following a behavior in order to decrease that behavior.
It is important to keep in mind when using punishment that the greater the initial intensity of the punishment:
the greater the response suppression.

This is the best response of those given. Research has shown that punishment should be introduced at maximum intensity; if not, habituation may occur, which will reduce the effectiveness of the punishment.
When using flooding to eliminate a client's phobic reactions, you would be MOST concerned about which of the following:
a paradoxical increase in the phobic response.

Exposure to the feared stimulus, which occurs during flooding, can have the unfortunate consequence of enhancing the undesirable response. This is most likely to occur when the exposure period is too brief.
A recently-divorced 32-year old woman makes an appointment with you at the recommendation of her physician who has diagnosed her recurrent headaches as tension headaches. The woman tells you that a friend of hers was trained in self-hypnosis for a similar problem and says that she also wants training in self-hypnosis. You took a course on hypnosis in graduate school but have not used it in your clinical practice. You should:
admit your lack of expertise in the use of self-hypnosis and refer the woman to another therapist.

"Professional psychologists limit their practice, including supervision, to their demonstrated areas of professional competence." Although it is up to the psychologist to determine if he/she is "competent" with regard to a particular service or technique, a graduate course and weekend workshop in hypnosis is clearly insufficient.
In an organization, a complex task is best performed under which of the following conditions:
a decentralized communication network with a participative leader.

Decentralized communication networks, in which all workers can communicate freely with each other, is best for complex tasks that typically require a high degree of communication among workers. Further, a decentralized network would be conducive to participative leadership.

In a centralized communication network, all communication goes through a central person. This type of communication network works best with an authoritarian leader. Centralized networks are most effective for automated and other simple tasks for which it is not necessary for workers to communicate directly with each other.
If a child who is only four years old says things that are untrue, Piaget would say that:
an untrue statement at that age is due to a child's egocentric nature.

According to Piaget, children do not begin to intentionally lie until they reach the age of around 7. Prior to the age of 7, lying can be attributed to a child's egocentric view of the world. Furthermore, at this young age, untrue statements are often due to errors in recall.
A 3 1/2-year old begins stuttering, especially when he is excited about something. At this age, stuttering is usually:

Speech dysfluency (stuttering) is usually considered atypical (indicative of a problem) only if it continues beyond the age of 5.
For followers of Carl Rogers, heart palpitations, hyperventilation, tension headaches, and nausea are considered:
manifestations of denied threats to the self-concept.

For Rogers, personality and behavioral problems arise when an individual's natural tendency toward growth and actualization is disrupted by an incongruence between the self and experience.

Incongruence results when the evaluations made by others are inconsistent with one's self-concept. One way in which this incongruence is dealt with is to deny the external experience by saying it doesn't exist or by distorting it. Rogers believed that such denial doesn't really work: For instance, the denied objects or events can emerge as visceral symptoms associated with anxiety.
Sue and Sue (1977) have identified a number of language, class, and cultural values that impact the type of therapy preferred by a number of specific populations, including Asian-Americans.
According to Sue and Sue, Asian-American culture is characterized by an action-orientation, a concrete, structured approach to problem solving, and communication characterized by a one-way flow from an authority figure to others. These values are reflected by Asian-Americans' preference for directive, structured, and brief therapies designed to help them meet specific goals (e.g., academic, vocational, and career counseling).
A 56-year-old man has complained of paresthesia (numbness and tingling) in various parts of his body for nearly a year. Numerous physical exams have revealed no physiological cause of these symptoms and, when faced with these negative results, the man becomes very defensive. The man's wife says she knows he is "faking" his symptoms in order to avoid having to go to work. Based on this information, it appears that the man is most likely suffering from which of the following:

Malingering involves a voluntary production of physical symptoms in order to obtain an external benefit (e.g., avoidance of work). The other disorders listed are NOT voluntarily produced. Conversion disorder involves a loss in physical functioning that suggests a physical disorder but that is apparently due to psychological causes. Hypochondriasis involves a preoccupation with the belief that physical symptoms are indicative of a more severe physical illness. Somatoform disorders involve physical symptoms that are believed to be caused or contributed to by psychological factors.
Research investigating high-risk situations associated with relapse for a variety of addictive and other problem behaviors has shown that which of the following accounts for nearly three-fourths of relapse incidents:
negative emotional states, interpersonal conflicts, and social pressure.

Of the various precipitants of relapse, negative emotional states have been found to be the most frequent cause.
A diagnosis of Schizoaffective Disorder is more appropriate than Bipolar Disorder with Psychotic Features when:
psychotic symptoms occurred without mood symptoms for at least two weeks.