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108 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Democrats had been "outs" of the White House since _____. They hoped that a split GOP convention in _____ would let them win the presidency.
1897; Chicago
Once a conservative but now a militant progressive, this man was a brilliant lecturer on government and had risen in 1902 to the presidency of _____, where he had achieved some sweeping educational reforms.
Dr. Woodrow Wilson; Princeton University
In this state, Wilson entered politics in 1910 as candidate for governor. He was meant to be just a respectable front, but he wasn't easily manipulated by party bosses.
New Jersey (where Princeton is…)
These were Wilson's two promises to his constituents in New Jersey.
1) to assail the "predatory" trusts; 2) to return state government to the people
Democrats, meeting in this city in 1912, nominated Wilson on the _____the ballot, finally aided by _____'s switch to his side.
46; William Jennings Bryan
Wilson's platform was called this, and it emphasized stronger antitrust legislation, banking reform, and tariff reductions.
"New Freedom" program
This was the third party in 1912. Its nominee was this man.
Progressive; Theodore Roosevelt
A Progressive convention, which included _____ delegates from _____ states, met in this city during August 1912. Dramatically symbolizing the rising political status of women, as well as Progressive support for the cause of social justice, settlement-house pioneer _____ placed TR's name in for nomination.
2,000; 40; Chicago; Jane Addams
This journalist from _____ is quoted, "Roosevelt bit me and I went mad."
William Allen White; Kansas
This was the animal symbol for TR and Progressive party.
bull moose
The primary question in the election of 1912 was which of the two varieties of progressivism would prevail--_____ or _____.
Roosevelt's New Nationalism; Wilson's New Freedom
Both Wilson and TR favored a more active government role in economic and social affairs, but they disagreed sharply over specific strategies. TR preached the theories spun out by this progressive thinker in his book _____ (1910). The author and TR both favored continued consolidation of trusts and labor unions, paralleled by the growth of powerful agencies in Washington.
Herbert Croly; The Promise of American Life
Roosevelt and his "bull moosers" also campaigned for _____ and a broad program of social welfare, including _____ laws and "socialistic" _____. This was a precursor to New Deal.
woman suffrage; minimum-wage; social security
New Freedom favored small enterprise, entrepreneurship, and the free functioning of unregulated and unmonopolized markets. The Democrats shunned social-welfare proposals and pinned their economic faith on _____-- on the "_____," as Wilson put it.
competition; man on the make
The keynote of Wilson's campaign was not regulation but _____ of the big industrial combines, chiefly by means of vigorous enforcement of the antitrust laws.
In this city, TR was shot in the chest by a fanatic. He had to suspend campaigning for _____ weeks.
Milwaukee; two
These were the only two states that gave electoral votes to Taft--8 total.
Utah; Vermont
Wilson won the election with only _____% of the popular vote, though his party won a majority in Congress. His votes were actually smaller in number than any of _____'s, despite a population increase. Taft and TR pulled this many votes more than Wilson, had they combined.
41; Bryan; 1.25 million
Socialist candidate _____ rolled up over _____ votes, or more than twice as many as he had gotten in 1908.
Eugene V. Debs; 900,000
In 1912, the Republicans became a minority in Congress and continued to be for the next _____ years. They would not get a president for _____ years.
6; 8
Taft retired from politics to teach _____ for _____ years at _____, and in 1921 became a ______--a job for which he was far more happily suited than the presidency.
law; eight; Yale University; chief justice of the Supreme Court
Thomas Woodrow Wilson was the second Democratic president since _____, and his critics called him the "_____."
1861; Egghead Professor
Born in _____ shortly before the Civil War and reared in _____ and the _____, Wilson was the first man from one of the seceded southern states to reach the White House since _____, _____ years earlier.
Virginia; Georgia; Carolinas; Zachary Taylor; 64
Wilson's belief that the southern states were righteous in seeking independence inspired his belief in _____ for minority peoples in other countries. He believed in Jeffersonian concept of _____.
self-determination; informed masses
Wilson was the son of a _____. As a lifelong student of finely chiseled words, he turned out to be a "_____" who coined many noble epigrams. Someone has remarked that he was born halfway between the _____ and the _____, and never got away from either.
Presbyterian minister; phraseocrat; Bible; dictionary
Like a _____, a president, according to Wilson, should go out in front of Congress and provide leadership.
prime minister
Wilson was inflexibly stubborn in his _____. In reality, though, he was more of a _____.
idealism; realist
Immediately in office, Wilson called for an all-out assault on what he called the "_____." Name the parts.
triple wall of privilege; the tariff; the banks; the trusts
Summoning and speaking directly to a joint session of Congress in 1913, (ignoring the idea of sending a clerk that _____ had originated), Wilson influenced the House to swiftly pass this bill, which provided for a substantial reduction of rates.
Jefferson; Underwood Tariff Bill
A swarm of lobbyists descended on the Senate in response to the Underwood bill, so Wilson urged American citizens to keep their elected representatives in line. In doing this, he convinced the Senators to pass the bill, approved in 1913.
Underwood Tariff substantially reduced _____ fees. It also was a landmark in _____ legislation. Under authority granted by the recently ratified _____, Congress enacted a _____, beginning with a modest levy on incomes over $_____. By 1917 revenue from this surpassed that of the _____.
import; tax; Sixteenth Amendment; graduated income tax; 3,000; tariff
The country's financial structure, still creaking along under the Civil War _____, revealed glaring defects. The biggest problem, revealed by the _____, was the _____.
National Banking Act; panic of 1907; inelasticity of the currency
Banking reserves were heavily concentrated in _____ and a handful of other large cities and could not be mobilized in times of financial stress into areas that were badly pinched.
New York
In 1908 Congress had authorized an investigation headed by a mossback banker, this man. Three years later, his special commission recommended a gigantic bank with numerous branches--in effect, a third _____.
Republican Senator Aldrich; Bank of the United States
Democratic banking reformers heeded the findings of a House committee chaired by _____, which traced the tentacles of the "money monster" into the hidden vaults of American banking and business.
Congressman Arsene Pujo
President Wilson's confidant, progressive-minded _____ from the state of _____, further fanned the flames of reform with his incendiary though scholarly book _____ (1914).
Louis D. Brandeis; Massachusetts; Other People's Money and How the Bankers Use It
In June 1913, appearing before both houses of Congress, the president endorsed Democratic proposals for a decentralized bank in government hands, as opposed to Republican demands for a huge private bank with _____ branches.
This was the most important piece of economic legislation between the Civil War and the New Deal.
Federal Reserve Act (1913)
This agency, appointed by the president, oversaw a nationwide system of _____ regional reserve districts, each with its own central bank. Although these regional banks were actually bankers' banks, owned by member financial institutions, the final authority guaranteed a substantial measure of public control.
Federal Reserve Board; twelve
The Federal Reserve Board was also empowered to issue paper money--"_____"--backed by commercial paper, such as promissory notes of businesspeople.
Federal Reserve Notes
The Federal Reserve Act carried the nation with flying banners through the financial crises of the World War of 1914-1918. Without it, the Republic's progress toward the modern economic age would have been seriously retarded.
For sure.
This new law empowered a presidentially appointed commission to turn a searchlight on industries engaged in interstate commerce, such as the _____. The commissioners were expected to crush monopoly at the source by rooting out unfair trade practices, including unlawful competition, _____ (a problem, especially for those 'cure-all' patent medicines), mislabeling, _____ (mixing and tainting of ingredients), and bribery.
Federal Trade Commission Act of 1914; meat packers; false advertising; adulteration
This law lengthened the shopworn Sherman Act's list of business practices that were deemed objectionable, including _____ (giving out special kickbacks to good customers like J.P. Morgan or other barons of industry) and _____ (same individuals serve as board members of supposedly competing firms).
Clayton Anti-Trust Act of 1914; price discrimination; interlocking directorates
The Clayton Act also conferred long-overdue benefits on _____. Conservative judges were ruling them to be obstructing fair commerce, so the Clayton Act legalized _____ and _____, while also exempting labor and agricultural organizations (like _____, Toy said in class) fro antitrust prosecution.
labor/labor unions; strikes; peaceful picketing; the Grange
A classic case involved striking _____ in _____, who were assessed triple damages of more than $_____, which resulted in the loss of their savings and homes.
hatmakers; Danbury, Connecticut; 250,000
This union leader hailed the Clayton Act as the "Magna Carta of labor" because it legally lifted human labor out of the category of "_____." But the rejoicing was premature, as conservative judges in later years continued to clip the wings of the union movement.
Samuel Gompers; a commodity or article of commerce
Wilson was an idealist progressive in his first _____ months in office.
This law made credit available to farmers at low rates of interest--as long demanded by the _____.
Federal Farm Load Act of 1916; Populists
This authorized loans on the security of staple crops--another _____ idea.
Warehouse Act of 1916; Populist
Other laws benefited rural America by providing for _____ and the establishment of agricultural extension work in the _____.
highway construction; state colleges
This law required decent treatment and a living wage on American merchant ships. One unhappy result of this well-intentioned law was the crippling of America's merchant marine, as shippers recoiled from the high-wage freight rates on American vessels.
La Follette Seamen's Act of 1915
This granted assistance to federal civil-service employees during periods of disability.
Workingmen's Compensation Act of 1916
Also in 1916, Wilson approved an act restricting _____ on products flowing into interstate commerce, though the standpat Supreme Court soon invalidated the law.
child labor
This act, affecting #_____ railroad workers, established an 8-hour day for all employees on trains in interstate commerce, with extra pay for overtime.
Adamson "Eight-Hour" Act of 1916
This man was the first Jew to serve as associate justice on the Supreme Court. His confirmation angered businessmen and bigots.
Louis D. Brandeis
The southern-bred Wilson actually presided over accelerated _____ in the federal bureaucracy. Wilson even froze out of his office a delegation of _____ leaders who personally protested to him.
segregation; black
Believe it or not, Wilson did appease businesspeople by making conservative appointments to the _____ and the _____, but he devoted most of his energies to cultivating progressive support.
Federal Reserve Board; Federal Trade Commission
Wilson hated TR's _____ and Taft's _____.
imperialism/big stickism; dollar diplomacy
Wilson was only in office for _____ before he declared war on dollar diplomacy. He proclaimed that the government would no longer offer special support to American investors in Latin America and China. Shivering from this Wilsonian bucket of cold water, American bankers pulled out of the Taft-engineered _____-nation load to _____ the next day.
a week; six; China
Early in 1914, Wilson persuaded Congress to repeal this law, which had exempted American coastwise shipping from tolls and thereby provoked sharp protests from injured _____.
Panama Canal Tolls Act of 1912; Britain
This act in 1916 granted to the Philippines the boon of territorial status and promised independence as soon as a "stable government" could be established. That happy day came _____ years late, on July 4, 1946.
Jones Act; thirty
Wilson also partially defused a menacing crisis with Japan in 1913. The California legislature, still seeking to rid the Golden State of Japanese settlers, prohibited them from _____. Tokyo, understandably irritated, lodged vigorous protests. At _____, in _____, American gunners were put on around-the-clock alert. But when Wilson dispatched _____ to plead with the CA legislature, tensions eased somewhat.
owning land; Fortress Corregidor; the Philippines; Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan
This country, rent with revolution, soon forced Wilson to eat some of his own anti-imperialist words. The climax came in 1914-1915, when an outraged populace literally tore to pieces the brutal president. In 1915 Wilson reluctantly dispatched _____ to protect American lives and property.
Haiti; marines
In 1916 Wilson stole a page from _____ and concluded a treaty with Haiti providing for U.S. supervision of _____ and the _____.
Roosevelt's corollary to the Monroe Doctrine; finances; police
In 1916 Wilson sent the marines to the riot-rocked _____, and that debt-cursed land came under the shadow of the American eagle's wings. In 1917 Wilson purchased from _____ the _____, in the West Indies, tightening the grip of Uncle Sam in these shark-infested waters.
Dominican Republic; Denmark; Virgin Islands
For decades _____ had been sorely exploited by foreign investors in _____, _____, and _____. By 1913 American capitalists had sunk about $_____ into the under-developed but richly endowed country, and about _____ U.S. citizens had taken up residence south of the _____.
Mexico; oil; railroads; mines; a billion; 50,000; Rio Grande
But if Mexico was rich, the Mexicans were poor. Their revolution took an ugly turn in 1913, when a conscienceless clique murdered the popular new revolutionary president (named _____) and installed _____, a full-blooded _____, in the president's chair.
Madero; General Huerta; Indian
Mexican migration to the USA ensured. More than _____ Mexicans came across the border during the first _____ years of the 20th century.
a million; thirty
Mexicans settled mostly in _____, _____, _____, and _____ and worked on highways, railroads, or followed the fruit harvests as _____.
Texas; New Mexico; Arizona; California; pickers
This man greatly chanted to go to war in Mexico, mainly because he owned a ranch there larger than the state of _____.
William Randolph Hearst; Rhode Island
Wilson's quote about dealing with Latin America (sounds pretty idealist, no?):
"I am going to teach the South American republics to elect good men."
In 1914, Wilson let American munitions flow to Huerta's principal rivals, white-bearded _____ and swarthy _____.
Venustiano Carranza; Francisco ("Pancho") Villa
At this Atlantic seaport in April 1914, a small party of American sailors was arrested.
The Mexicans promptly released the captives and apologized, but they refused the hotheaded American admiral's demand for a salute of _____. Wilson, heavy-hearted but stubbornly determined to eliminate Huerta, asked Congress for authority to use force against Mexico. Before Congress could act, Wilson ordered the navy, which was seeking to intercept a German ship bearing arms to Huerta, to seize the Mexican port of _____. Huerta as well as Carranza hotly protested against this high-handed Yankee intervention.
twenty-one guns; Vera Cruz
Before all-out war could occur, Wilson received an offer of mediation from the _____-_____, _____, and _____. Huerta collapsed in 1914 under pressure from within and without. He was succeeded by his arch-rival, _____, still fiercely resentful of Wilson's military meddling.
ABC powers; Argentina; Brazil; Chile; Venustiano Carranza
This man emerged as the chief rival to Carranza, whom we supported. This evil man killed #_____ U.S. citizens in cold blood at _____. The culminating outrage occurred in March 1916, when Villistas shot up _____, leaving behind _____ dead Americans.
Villa; 18; Santa Ysabel, Mexico; Columbus, New Mexico; 17
This man, a grim-faced and ramrod-erect veteran of the Cuban and Philippine campaigns, was ordered to break up the bandit band (Villa). His cavalry crashed with Villistas but missed capturing Villa himself. The invading army was withdrawn in January 1917, due to threat of war with _____.
General John J. ("Black Jack") Pershing; Germany
In the summer of 1914, a _____ patriot killed the hair to the throne of _____ in _____. An outraged government in capital city of _____ was outraged, and, backed by _____, forthwith presented a stern ultimatum to neighboring Serbia.
Serb; Austria-Hungry; Sarajevo; Vienna; Germany
This country backed Serbia, and _____ was that country's ally.
Russia; France
Germany targeted France by going through _____. _____ was sucked into the war to fight with its new ally _____.
Belgium; Great Britain; France
There were two sides in the war: _____ (_____, _____, & later _____, _____) versus _____ (_____, _____, _____, & later _____, _____)
Central Powers; Germany; Austria-Hungary; Turkey; Bulgaria; Allies; France; Britain; Russia; Japan; Italy
Wilson was saddened over _____ while the war was breaking out. He thus issued call for _____.
death of his wife; neutrality
This ran rampant in the United States, and more so in Britain, which increased the effect of the virtual embargo.
anti-German propaganda
Germans and Austro-Hungarians counted on people with blood ties to the Central Powers, which numbered some _____ in 1914 in the US.
11 million
This man seemed to be the embodiment of arrogant autocracy, an impression strengthened by Germany's ruthless strike at neutral _____.
Kaiser Wilhelm II; Belgium
German and Austrian agents further tarnished the image of the Central Powers in American eyes when they resorted to violence in American _____ and _____. When a German operative in 1915 absentmindedly left his briefcase on a New York elevated car, its documents detailing plans for industrial sabotage were quickly discovered and publicized. We now really hate Germany.
factories; ports
America, about to be very bogged down in a business _____ in 1914, was saved by war orders from Britain and France. American bankers helped as well, notably the Wall Street firm of _____, which eventually advanced to the Allies the enormous sum of $_____ during the period of American neutrality.
recession; J.P. Morgan and Company; 2.3 billion
The British navy, controlling the Atlantic, put a blockade of mines and ships across the _____, gateway to German ports. British began forcing American vessels off the high seas and into their ports. German-US trade of 1916 decreased to just _____% of the 1914 levels.
North Sea; 0.08
In retaliation to the British blockade, Berlin in February 1915 announced a submarine war area around _____. The submarine was so new that existing international law could not be made to fit it.
the British Isles
Berlin officials declared that they would try not to sink _____ shipping, but they warned that mistakes would probably occur.
German submarines were called _____, from the German _____ or "undersea-boat").
U-boats; Unterseeboot
In the first months of 1915, U-boats sank about _____ ships in the war zone. Then the submarine issue became acute when British passenger liner _____ was torpedoed and sank off the coast of _____ on May 7, 1915, with the loss of _____ lives, including _____ Americans.
ninety; Lusitania; Ireland; 1,198; 128
The Lusitania was carrying _____ cases of small-arms ammunition, a fact that the Germans used to justify the sinking. We called the event "_____" and "_____."
4200; mass murder; piracy
This man resigned rather than sign a protest note that might spell shooting.
Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan
This man came back to the forefront, saying that "_____" and "_____," also known as pacifists, were babies like Wilson.
TR; flubdubs; mollycoddles
After another British liner, the _____, was sunk in August 1915, with the loss of _____ Americans, Berlin reluctantly agreed not to sink unarmed and unresisting passenger ships _____.
Arabic; two; without warning
The pledge was violated in March 1916, when the Germans torpedoed a French passenger steamer, the _____. Wilson threatened to break diplomatic relations, step one on the way to declaring war, if the Germans would not stop.
Wilson's note, this, agreed not to sink passenger ships and merchant vessels without giving warning. But the Germans attached a long _____ to their _____: the US would have to persuade the Allies to modify what Berlin regarded as their illegal blockade.
Sussex ultimatum; string; Sussex pledge
Election of 1916: These two parties met in this city.
Progressives; Republicans; Chicago
This man was nominated by the Progressives, but he agreed not to run.
Teddy Roosevelt
This was TR's home; similar to Jefferson's _____.
Sagamore Hill; Monticello
Many Republicans wanted this man to run for their party, but the Old Guard was still bitter about him. Instead they drafted _____, a cold intellectual who had achieved a solid liberal record when he was _____. The Republican platform condemned the Democratic tariff, assaults on trusts, and Wilson's wishy-washiness in dealing with Mexico and Germany.
TR; Supreme Court Justice Charles Evans Hughes
Hughes ("_____") left the bench for the campaign stump, where he was not at home. He assailed Wilson in anti-German areas and took a softer line in isolationist areas. This strategy led to the jeer, "_____."
an animated feather duster; Charles Evasive Hughes
TR gave a series of _____ against Wilson. He also called Hughes a "_____."
skin-'em-alive speeches; whiskered Wilson
Wilson was nominated by the Democrats meeting in _____. His slogan: "_____."
St. Louis; He Kept Us Out of War
Why did people assume Hughes was going to win the election as poll results were coming in? What state did the vote depend on? Wilson got only _____ more than his opponent, out of a million votes cast.
time zones made it seem like Hughes, who was winning in the East, was going to win; California; 3,800
Wilson wins election, thanks to supporters like…
laborers; ex-bull moosers whom the Republicans had failed to lure back to their party
This was the chief German-American propaganda newspaper in the United States. It criticized bitterly the U.S. involvement in excluding Germans, killing 10,000 of them?
The Fatherland