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162 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
In 1900, US had this many people. One out of every _____ people was foreign born.
76 million; 7
In the 14 years before the outbreak of the _____, _____ more migrants would carry their bundles down the gangplanks to the land of promise.
Great War; 13 million
New liberal crusaders, called "_____," waged war on many evils, notably monopoly, corruption, inefficiency, and social injustice.
Progressive army was large, multicolored, and widely deployed, but it had a single battle cry:
"Strengthen the State"
Progressive movement was rooted in the _____ of the 1870s and the _____ of the 1890s.
Greenback Labor party; Populists
An outwork philosophy of hands-off _____ seemed increasingly out of place in the modern machine age.
Progressive theorists were insisting that society could no longer afford the luxury of a limitless "_____" policy (_____). The people, through government, must substitute mastery for drift.
let-alone; laissez-faire
These two men, and the Populists, were examples of early "progressives." They branded the "_____" with the stigma of corruption and wrongdoing.
Bryan; Altgeld; bloated trusts
In 1894, this man charged headlong into the Standard Oil Company with his book entitled _____.
Henry Demarest Lloyd; Wealth against Commonwealth
Eccentric _____ assailed the new rich with his prickly pen in _____ (1899), a savage attack on "_____" and "_____."
Thorstein Veblen; The Theory of the Leisure Class; predatory wealth; conspicuous consumption
The keen-eyed and keen-nosed _____ immigrant _____, a reporter for the New York _____, shocked middle-class Americans in 1890 with _____. His account was a damning indictment of the dirt, disease, vice, and misery of the rat-gnawed human rookeries known as _____. The book deeply influenced a future NYC _____, _____.
Danish; Jacob A. Riis; Sun; How the Other Half Lives; New York Slums; police commissioner; Theodore Roosevelt
Novelist _____ used his blunt prose to batter promoters and profiteers in _____ (1912) and _____ (1914).
Theodore Dreiser; The Financier; The Titan
These people, now swelling in numbers, must take high rank among the caustic critics of existing injustices. These were even more liberally extreme than progressives.
Many socialists were _____ who decried "_____," and they began to register appreciable strength at the ballot boxes as the new century dawned.
European immigrants; bloody capitalism
Countries like _____ were launching daring experiments in state socialism. In faraway _____ and _____, Socialist reforms were also being undertaken that attracted much notice in America.
Germany; Australia; New Zealand
High-minded messengers of the _____ also contributed mightily to the upsurging wave of reform, as did the ever-growing _____. _____ in multiplying numbers added social justice to suffrage on their lists of needed reforms.
social gospel; women's movement; feminists
With urban pioneers like _____ blazing the way, women entered the flight to clean up corrupt city governments, to protect women on the clanging factory floor, to keep children out of the smudgy mills and sooty mines, and to ensure that only safe food products found their way to the family table. Women were largely concerned with reforms in the still-stretching _____.
Jane Addams; cities
Beginning about 1902, exposing the evil became a flourishing industry among American publishers. A group of aggressive ten- and fifteen-cent popular magazines surged to the front, notably _____, _____, _____, and _____. They waged fierce _____ and dug deep for the dirt that the public loved to hate.
McClure's; Cosmopolitan; Collier's; Everybody's; circulation wars
Enterprising editors financed extensive research and encouraged pugnacious writing by the bright young reporters, whom President _____ branded as "_____."
Annoyed by their excess of zeal, TR compared the mudslinging magazine dirt-diggers to the figure in _____'s _____ who was so intent on raking manure that he could not see the celestial crown dangling overhead.
Bunyan; Pilgrim's Progress
In 1902, a brilliant New York reporter, _____, launched a series of articles in _____ entitled "_____." He fearlessly unmasked the corrupt alliance between big business and municipal government.
Lincoln Steffens; McClure's; The Shame of the Cities
McClure's also featured _____, a pioneering woman journalist who published a devastating expose of the _____. (Her father had been ruined by the oil interests.) Fearing legal reprisals, the muckraking magazines had to pay as much as $_____ to fact-check a single one of her articles.
Ida M. Tarbell; Standard Oil Company; 3,000
Muckrakers had various targets, including the malpractices of _____ and _____.
life insurance companies; tariff lobbies
Muckrakers roasted the beef trust, the "money trust," the railroad barons, and the corrupt amassing of American fortunes.
This man, an erratic speculator who had himself made $_____ on the stock market, laid bare the practices of his accomplices in "_____." This series of articles, appearing in 1905-1906, rocketed the circulation of _____. He died a poor man… no wonder. Too many enemies.
Thomas W. Lawson; 50 million; Frenzied Finance; Everybody's
This man shocked an already startled nation by his series in _____ entitled "_____" (1906). He boldly charged that _____ of the _____ senators did not represent the people at all but the railroads and trusts. This withering indictment, buttressed by facts, impressed TR. The author continued his attacks through novels and was fatally shot in 1911 by a deranged young man whose family he had allegedly maligned.
David G. Phillips; Cosmopolitan; The Treason of the Senate; seventy-five; ninety
Social evils were attacked by the muckrakers. The ugly list included the immoral "_____"_____ in women, the rickety slums, and the appalling number of industrial accidents.
"white slave" traffic"
The sorry subjugation of America's _____ blacks--of whom _____% still lived in the South, and _____ (fraction) were illiterate--were spotlighted in _____'s _____ (1908).
9 million; 90; 1/3; Ray Stannard Baker; Following the Color Line
The abuses of child labor were brought luridly to light by _____'s _____ (1906).
John Spargo; The Bitter Cry of the Children
Vendors of potent _____ (often were primarily just _____) likewise came in for bitter criticism. These conscienceless vultures sold incredible quantities of adulterated or habit-forming drugs, while "doping" the press with lavish advertising.
patent medicines; alcohol
Muckraking attacks in _____ were ably reinforced by _____, chief chemist of the _____, who with the famous "_____" performed experiments on himself.
Collier's; Dr. Harvey W. Wiley; Department of Agriculture; Poison Squad
Progressive reformers were mainly of this class because they felt pressure from the giant new corporation, the restless immigrant hordes, and the aggressive labor unions.
The progressives simultaneously sought two goals…
1) to use state power to curb the trusts; 2) to stem the Socialist threat by generally improving the common person's conditions of life and labor.
One of the first objectives of progressives was to regain the power that had slipped from the hands of the people into the those of the "_____." These ardent reformers pushed for direct _____ so as to undercut power-hungry party bosses.
interests; primary elections
This allowed voters to directly propose legislation themselves, thus bypassing the boss-bought state legislatures.
initiative (citizens' initiative)
This was the Progressive device that would place laws on the ballot for final approval of the people, especially laws that had been railroaded through a compliant legislature by free-spending agents of big business.
This would enable the voters to remove faithless elected officials, particularly those who had been bribed by bosses or lobbyists.
Rooting out _____ also became a goal of earnest progressives. A number of the state legislatures passed _____, which limited the amount of money that candidates could spend for their elections. Such legislation also restricted huge gifts from corporations, for which the donors would expect special favors.
graft; corrupt-practices acts
The _____ was likewise being introduced more widely in the states to counteract boss rule. _____ was less feasible when the people trying to do it could not tell if they were getting their money's worth from the harassed (no more colored-by-party ballots).
secret Australian ballot
This became a favorite goal of progressives, especially after the muckrakers had exposed a scandalous tie-in between greedy corporations and Congress.
direct election of U.S. senators
By 1900 the Senate had so many rich men that it was often sneered at as the "_____." Too many of the prosperous solons, elected as they then were by the _____-dominated state legislatures, heeded the voice of their "masters" rather than that of the masses.
Millionaires' Club; trust
A _____, number _____, to bring about the popular election of senators had rough sledding in Congress, for the plutocratic members of the Senate were happy with existing methods. But a number of states established primary elections in which the voters expressed their preferences for the Senate.
constitutional amendment; seventeenth
The _____, ratified in 1913, established the direct election of senators. But the expected improvement in caliber was slow in coming.
Seventeenth Amendment to the Constitution
This issue, the goal of feminists for many decades, received powerful new support from the progressives early in the 1900s. The political reformers believed that women's votes would elevate the political tone; foes of the _____ felt that they could count on the support of enfranchised females.
woman suffrage; saloon
The _____, crying "Votes for Women" and "Equal Suffrage for Men and Women," protested bitterly against "_____."
suffragists; Taxation without Representation
This type of person was sneeringly defined as "One who has ceased to be a lady and has not yet become a gentleman."
In 1901, this city had appointed expert-staffed commissions to manage urban affairs. Other communities adopted the _____, also designed to take politics out of municipal administration. Some of these "reforms" obviously valued efficiency more highly than democracy, as control of civic affairs was further removed from the people's hands.
Galveston, Texas; city-manager system
Urban reformers likewise attacked "_____," juvenile delinquency, and wide-open prostitution (_____), which flourished in _____ unchallenged by bribed police.
slumlords; vice-at-a-price; red-light districts
Public-spirited city-dwellers also moved to halt the corrupt sale of franchises for _____ and other public utilities.
Progressivism naturally bubbled up to the state level, notably in _____, which became a laboratory of reform.
The governor of Wisconsin, pompadoured _____ ("_____") _____, was an undersized but overengined crusader who emerged as the most militant of the progressive _____ (party) leaders.
Robert M. "Fighting Bob" La Follette; Republican
After a desperate fight with entrenched monopoly, La Follette reached the governor's chair in 1901. Routing the _____ and _____ "interests," he wrested considerable control from the crooked corporations and returned it to the people. He also perfected a scheme for regulating public utilities, while laboring in close association with experts on the faculty of the state university at _____.
lumber; railroad; Madison
These were the main weapons whereby states could target railroads and trusts.
public utilities commissions
The state of _____ was not far behind Wisconsin, and _____ made giant bootstrides under the stocky _____.
Oregon; California; Hiram W. Johnson
Johnson, elected Republican governor in 1910, was a dynamic prosecutor of grafters and helped break the dominant grip of the _____ on California politics; then, like La Follette, he set up a political machine of his own.
Southern Pacific Railroad
Heavily whiskered _____, the able and fearless reformist Republican governor of _____, had earlier gained national fame as an investigator of malpractices by _____ and _____ companies and by the _____ trust.
Charles Evans Hughes; New York; gas; insurance; coal
These protected the toiler/injured laborer from the burden of lawsuits to prove negligence on the part of the employer.
workmen's compensation laws
Steaming and unsanitary _____ were a public scandal in many cities.
In 1911, a fire at the _____ in _____ incinerated _____ women workers, mostly girls. Lashed by the public outcry, the legislature of New York and later other legislatures passed laws regulating the hours and conditions of toil in such firetraps.
Triangle Shirtwaist Company; New York City; 146
In this landmark case, crusading attorney _____ persuaded the Supreme Court to accept the constitutionality of laws protecting women workers, because of "woman's peculiar structure." Although that reasoning seemed sexist and discriminatory by later standards, progressives hailed the achievement as a triumph.
Muller v. Oregon (1908); Louis D. Brandeis
One dismaying setback came in 1905, when the Supreme Court, in _____, invalidated a NY law establishing a _____-hour day for _____. Yet the reformist progressive wave finally washed up into the judiciary, and in 1917 the Court upheld a ten-hour law for factory workers.
Lochner v. New York; ten; bakers
The concept of _____ was beginning to replace the old dog-eat-dog philosophy of unregulated free enterprise.
employer's responsibility
These, with their shutter doors, naturally attracted the ire and fire of progressives. Alcohol was intimately connected with red-light district prostitution, the drunken voter, crooked city officials, and the "boss" who counted poker chips by night and miscounted ballots by day (including the "_____").
corner saloons; cemetery vote
By 1900 cities like _____ and _____ had one saloon for every _____ people.
New York; San Francisco; 200
This was a militant antiliquor campaign organization. Pious _____, one of its founders, would fall on her knees in prayer on saloon floors. She found a vigorous ally in the _____, which was aggressive, well organized, and well financed.
Woman's Christian Temperance Union; Frances E. Willard; Anti-Saloon League
Some counties and states passed "_____," which controlled, restricted, or abolished alcohol. The big cities were generally "_____," for they had a large immigrant vote accustomed in the Old Country to the free flow of wine and beer.
dry laws; wet
When World War I erupted in 1914, nearly _____% of the population lived in "dry" territory, and nearly _____% of the total area had outlawed saloons. Demon Rum was groggy and was to be floored--temporarily--by the _____ in 1919.
50; 75; Eighteenth Amendment
TR's sportsman's instincts spurred him into demanding a "_____" for capital, labor, and the public at large. Broadly speaking, the president's program embraced _____: _____, _____, and _____.
Square Deal; three Cs; control of corporations; consumer protection; conservation of natural resources
In 1902, a crippling strike broke out in the _____ mines of _____. Some _____ besooted workers, many of them illiterate immigrants, had long been frightfully exploited and accident-plagued. They demanded, among other improvements, a _____% increase in pay and a reduction of the working day from _____ to _____ hours.
anthracite coal; Pennsylvania; 140,000; 20; ten; nine
Unsympathetic mine owners, confident that the public would not support the miners, refused to _____ or even _____.
arbitrate; negotiate
One of their spokesmen, multimillionaire _____, reflected the high-and-mighty attitude of certain ungenerous employers. Workers, he wrote, would be cared for "not by the labor agitators, but by the Christian men to whom God in His infinite wisdom has given the control of the property interests of this country."
George F. Baer
As coal supplies dwindled, _____, _____, and _____ began shutting down.
factories; schools; hospitals
TR resorted to using the big stick when he threatened to seize the mines and operate them with federal troops. The owners, then, consented to arbitration. A compromise move gave laborers _____% pay raise and _____-hour days. Their union, however, was not recognized as a _____.
10; nine; bargaining agent
This body was created by Congress when TR urged them to respond to the mounting antagonisms between capital and labor. It was achieved in 1903, but in 1913 it was split into two separate agencies.
Department of Commerce and Labor
This, a part of the Department of Commerce and Labor, was authorized to probe businesses engaged in interstate commerce. This bureau was highly useful in helping to break the stranglehold of monopoly and in clearing the road for the era of "_____."
Bureau of Corporations; trust-busting
This, created back in 1887 as a feeble sop to the public, had proven woefully inadequate. Railroad barons could simply appeal the commission's decisions on rates to the federal courts--a process that might take _____ years.
Interstate Commerce Commission; ten
Spurred by TR, Congress passed effective railroad legislation beginning with the _____ of _____. This act aimed at the evils of _____. Heavy fines could now be imposed both on the railroads that gave rebates and on the shippers that accepted them.
Elkins Act of 1903; rebates
This act severely restricted free passes (with their hint of bribery). The once-infantile _____ was expanded, and its reach was extended to include express companies, sleeping-car companies, and pipelines. For the first time, the commission was given real molars when it was authorized, on complaint of shippers, to nullify existing rates and stipulate _____.
Hepburn Act of 1906; Interstate Commerce Commission; maximum rates
This had come to be a fighting word in the progressive era.
TR concluded that there were both "_____" and "_____" trusts, and he made a distinction, since the former had public consciences and the latter lusted greedily for power. TR wanted to curb trusts, but not eliminate business entirely.
good; bad
TR as a "trust-buster" first burst into the headlines in 1902 with an attack on this company, a railroad holding company organized by financial titan _____ and empire builder _____. These Napoleonic moguls of money sought to achieve a virtual monopoly of the railroads in the Northwest.
Northern Securities Company; J.P. Morgan; James J. Hill
In this case, in 1904, TR's antitrust suit was upheld and the Northern Securities Company was ordered to be dissolved. The decision jostled Wall Street and angered big business but greatly enhanced TR's reputation as a trust maker.
Northern Securities decision
TR brandished the big stick against _____ monopolies in legal proceedings against them.
In 1905, the Supreme Court declared the _____ trust illegal, and the heavy fist of justice fell upon monopolists controlling sugar, fertilizer, harvesters, and other key products.
TR felt that _____ and _____ were the hallmarks of the age, and to try to stem the tide of economic progress by political means he considered the rankest folly. Bigness was not necessarily badness; so why punish success?
combination; integration
TR's successor, _____, actually "busted" more trusts than TR did. In one celebrated instance in 1907, Roosevelt even gave his personal blessing to _____'s plan to have _____ absorb the _____, without fear of antitrust reprisals. TR was explosively angry when his successor launched a suit against US Steel in 1911.
William Howard Taft; J.P. Morgan; U.S. Steel; Tennessee Coal and Iron Company
In 1906, TR backed a noteworthy measure that benefited both consumers and corporations. Big _____ were being shut out of certain European markets because some meat was tainted.
meat packers
This man's sensational novel, _____ (1906), was intended to focus attention on the plight of the workers in the big canning factories, but instead he appalled the public with his description of disgustingly unsanitary food products.
Upton Sinclair; The Jungle
The book described the bad conditions in _____'s slaughterhouses. TR and many other readers were so sickened that they found meat to be unpalatable for a time. TR even appointed a special _____, whose cold-blooded report almost outdid Sinclair's novel.
Chicago; investigating commission
TR induced Congress to pass the _____ in 1906. It decreed that the preparation of meat shipped over state lines would be subject to federal inspection from _____ to _____.
Meat Inspection Act; corral; can
The Meat Inspection Act actually helped large companies to drive smaller competitors out of business, while receiving government approval of their products.
that sucks
This act was designed to prevent the adulteration and mislabeling of foods and pharmaceuticals.
Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906
Under this act, the government sold arid land cheaply on the condition that the purchaser irrigate the thirsty soil within _____ years. Began the long road to protection of US's resources.
Desert Land Act of 1877
This act, more successful than the Desert Land Act of 1877, authorized the president to set aside public forests as _____ and other reserves. Under this statute some _____ acres of magnificent trees were rescued from the lumberman's saw in the 1890s and preserved for prosperity.
Forest Reserve Act of 1891; national parks; 46 million
This act distributed federal land to the states on the condition that it be irrigated and settled. The law led to the cultivation of about _____ barren acres, in a fruitful marriage of desert and water.
Carey Act of 1894
TR was a great new advocate for Mother Nature, but other dedicated conservationists, notably _____, head of the federal _____, had broken important ground before him.
Gifford Pinchot; Division of Forestry
Conservationist TR and famed naturalist-conservationist _____ visited _____, on the rim of the _____, California. From this spot, one can view _____.
John Muir; Glacier Point; Yosemite Valley; Yosemite Falls
This act allowed Washington to collect money from the sale of public lands in the sun-baked western states and then use these funds for the development of irrigation projects. Settlers repaid the cost of reclamation from their now-productive soil, and the money was put into a revolving fund to finance more such enterprises.
Newlands Act of 1902
This structure, constructed on _____'s _____, was appropriately dedicated by Roosevelt in 1911. Thanks to the epochal Newlands Act of 1902, dozens of other dams were thrown across virtually every major western river in ensuing decades.
Roosevelt Dam; Arizona; Salt River
By 1900 only about _____% of the once-vast virgin timberlands remained standing. Lumbermen had already logged off most of the first-growth timer from _____ to _____, and the sharp thud of their axes was beginning to split the silence in the great fir forests of the Pacific slope.
25; Maine; Michigan
Roosevelt proceeded to set aside in federal reserves some _____ acres, or almost _____x the acreage thus saved from the saw by his three predecessors. He similarly earmarked millions of acres of _____ deposits, as well as _____ resources useful for irrigation and power.
125 million; three; coal; water
To set a shining example, in 1902 TR banned these from the White House.
Christmas trees
This, including _____, may have been TR's most enduring tangible achievement.
conservation; reclamation
This, believed to be the source of such national characteristics as individualism and democracy, needed to be protected from disappearance.
City dwellers snapped up _____'s _____ (1903) and other books about nature, and urban youngsters made the outdoor-oriented _____ the country's largest youth organization
Jack London; Call of the Wild; Boy Scouts of America
The _____, founded in 1892, dedicated itself to preserving the wildness of the western landscape.
Sierra Club
The _____ (a distinction from conservationists!) lost a major battle in 1913 when the federal government allowed the city of _____ to build a dam for its municipal water supply in the spectacular, high-walled _____ in _____. The "_____" laid bare a deep division among conservationists that persists to the present day.
preservationists; San Francisco; Hetch Hetchy Valley; Yosemite National Park
To the preservationists of the _____, including famed naturalist _____, _____ was a "_____" of nature that should be held inviolable by the civilizing hand of humanity.
Sierra Club; John Muir; Hetch Hetchy; temple
This man said "wilderness was waste."
Gifford Pinchot
Conservationists, like TR and Pinchot, wanted to use resources; they had to battle two fronts: against greedy commercial interests who abused nature as well as against romantic preservationists in thrall to simple "_____" sentimentality.
This policy was implemented by TR and professional foresters and engineers. They sought to combine recreation, sustained-yield logging, watershed protection, and summer stock grazing on the same expanse of federal land.
multiple-use resource management
Roosevelt was elected in his "own right" in this years. He defeated opponent _____.
1904; Alton B. Parker
This honored one of TR's bear-hunting exploits (when he saved the life of a cub). Also, children piped vigorously on whistles modeled on his famous _____.
teddy bear; teeth, you perv!
This was also a name for the often-sleazy sections of logging towns, where loggers spent their time in the off-season.
skid road (often corrupted as skid row)
Roosevelt had partly defanged himself in 1904 when, after his election, he announced that he would not _____.
run in 1908
This occurred in 1907, when a short but punishing downward economic pattern descended on Wall Street.
"Roosevelt panic" of 1907
Conservatives damned TR as "_____" and branded the current distress the Roosevelt panic. TR blamed rich people who deliberately engineered a crisis to force the government to relax its assaults on _____.
Theodore the Meddler; trusts
The R panic of 1907 indicated the need for a more elastic medium of exchange. In a crisis of this sort, the hard-pressed banks were unable to increase the volume of money in circulation, and those with ample reserves were reluctant to lend to their less fortunate competitors.
got that?
Congress passed this in 1908, authorizing national banks to issue emergency currency backed by various kinds of collateral. The path was thus smoothed for the epochal _____.
Aldrich-Vreeland Act; Federal Reserve Act of 1913
This man was chosen to be a successor to TR, carrying on "_____."
William Howard Taft; my policies
Taft was the _____ and a mild progressive. As an heir apparent, he had often been called upon in Roosevelt's absence to "_____"--all 350 pounds of him.
secretary of war; sit on the lid
The Republican convention of 1908 met in _____, and TR used his control of the party machinery--the "_____"--to push through Taft's nomination on the first ballot.
Chicago; steamroller
Three weeks later, meeting in _____, the Democrats nominated _____.
Denver; William Jennings Bryan
This was a nickname for Bryan.
Boy Orator
Taft wins, but the real surprise is that the _____, with their nominee _____, the hero of the _____, amassed 420,793 votes.
Socialists; Eugene V. Debs; Pullman strike
TR went on a _____ after Taft's election. His enemies toasted "_____." TR survived, though, at the age of _____ in 1909.
lion hunt in Africa; Health to the lions; 51
Roosevelt regarded this as "ominous."
The Square Deal was the grandfather of the _____ policies of his _____ (relation to TR) _____.
New Deal; fifth cousin; Franklin D. Roosevelt
This man was called "a round peg in a square hole."
These were names for Taft's bouts of laughter.
Taft graduated _____ in his class from _____ and had established an enviable reputation as a lawyer and judge, though widely regarded as hostile to _____.
second; Yale; labor unions
Taft served in Philippines, at home, and here, where he had served capably as a troubleshooter.
This was installed in the White House to accommodate Taft, and it was capable of holding all the men who had installed it.
Presidential bathtub
Taft was a poor judge of public opinion, and his candor made him a chronic victim of "_____" disease.
This was stamped, somewhat unfairly, on the foreign policy of the Taft administration. It had two sides: (1) using foreign policy to protect Wall Street dollars invested abroad and (2) using Wall Street dollars to uphold foreign policy.
"dollar diplomacy"
Washington warmly encouraged Wall Street bankers to sluice their surplus dollars into foreign areas of strategic concern to the United States, especially in the _____ and in the regions critical to the security of the _____.
Far East; Panama Canal
Otherwise, investors from rival powers, such as _____, might take advantage of financial chaos and secure a lodgment inimical to Uncle Sam's interests.
This thereby supplanted the big stick.
almighty dollar
This area was the object of Taft's most spectacular effort to inject the reluctant dollar into the Far Eastern theater.
China's Manchuria
Japan and Russia controlled Manchuria's _____. Taft saw this as a threat.
In 1909 this man blunderingly proposed that a group of American and foreign bankers buy the Manchurian railroads and then turn them over to China under a self-liquidating arrangement. Both Japan and Russia rejected his idea.
Secretary of State Philander C. Knox
This revolution-riddled area--now virtually a Yankee lake--was the place where Washington encouraged investors to pour money, particularly into the financial vacuums of these two countries.
Caribbean; Honduras; Haiti
Sporadic disorders in palm-fronded _____, ____, and _____ brought American forces to these countries to restore order. A revolutionary upheaval in _____, perilously close to the nearly completed canal, resulted in the landing of _____ marines in 1912.
Cuba; Honduras; the Dominican Republic; Nicaragua; 2,500
The colorless Taft brought _____ suits against the trusts during his _____ years in office, as compared with the some _____ for Roosevelt in _____ years.
90; 4; 44; 7 1/2
In 1911 the Supreme Court ordered the dissolution of the mighty _____, which was judged to be a combination in restraint of trade in violation of the _____.
Standard Oil Company; Sherman Anti-Trust Act of 1890
At the same time, the Court handed down its famous "_____." This doctrine held that only those combinations that "unreasonably" restrained trade were illegal. This fine-print proviso ripped a huge hole in the government's antitrust net.
rule of reason
Even more explosive than the Standard Oil ordeal, in 1911 Taft decided to press an antitrust suit against the _____. This initiative infuriated TR, who had personally been involved in one of the mergers that prompted the suit. Once Roosevelt's protégé, President Taft was increasingly taking on the role of his antagonist.
U.S. Steel Corporation
This was called the "Mother of Trusts," and it was high on the agenda of progressive members of the Republican party, and they at first thought they had a friend and ally in Taft.
high protective tariff
True to his campaign promises to reduce tariffs, Taft called Congress into special session in March 1909. The House proceeded to pass a moderately reductive bill, but senatorial reactionaries, led by _____ of _____, tacked on hundreds of upward tariff revisions. Only such items as _____, _____, and _____ were left on the duty-free list.
Senator Aldrich of Rhode Island; hides; sea moss; canary-bird seed
The previously mentioned bill was called the _____, and it betrayed Taft's campaign promises and outraged the progressive wing of his party, heavily drawn from the _____.
Payne-Aldrich Bill; Midwest
Taft's contributions in conservation were sometimes more notable than TR's. He set up this to control mineral resources, rescued millions of acres of western _____ lands from exploitation, and protected _____ sites from private development.
Bureau of Mines; coal; water-power
This, erupting in 1910, involved _____ after he decided to open lands in _____, _____, and _____ to corporate development; he was sharply criticized by _____, chief of the _____'s _____ and a stalwart Rooseveltian.
Ballinger-Pinchot quarrel; Secretary of the Interior Richard Ballinger; Wyoming; Montana; Alaska; Gifford Pinchot; Agriculture Department; Division of Forestry
When Taft dismissed Pinchot on the narrow grounds of _____, a storm of protest arose from conservationists and from Roosevelt's friends, who were legion. The whole unsavory episode further divided Taft and TR.
Progressive Republicans were annoyed by Payne-Aldrich Bill, then Taft's support of Ballinger; when Taft deserted the progressives in their attack on the leading _____ mouthpiece in the House of Representatives, the coarse and profane _____ (position) "_____" _____, the breach was complete.
Old Guard; Speaker; "Uncle Joe" Cannon
TR, returning triumphantly to New York, decided to be vocal. He took to the stump at _____ and shocked the Old Guard with his flaming speech. The doctrine he proclaimed--popularly known as the "_____"--urged the national government to increase its power to remedy economic and social abuses.
Osawatomie, Kansas; New Nationalism
This party lost horribly in the congressional elections of 1910. Their opposing party emerged with 228 seats, leaving the once-dominant party with only 161.
In a further symptom of the reforming temper of the times, a _____ representative, _____-born _____, was elected from _____. He was eventually denied his seat in 1919, during a wave of antired hysteria.
Socialist; Austrian; Victor L. Berger; Milwaukee
The Republicans, despite losing heavily in the House, kept their majority in the Senate, _____ to _____; the insurgents in the midst were numerous enough to make that hold precarious, though.
51; 41
This was formed early in 1911, with the fiery, white-maned _____ its leading candidate for the Republican presidential nomination. The assumption was that Roosevelt, an anti-third termer, would not permit himself to be "drafted."
National Progressive Republican League; Senator La Follette of Wisconsin
In February 1912, Roosevelt formally wrote to seven state governors that he was willing to accept the Republican nomination. His reasoning was that the third-term tradition applied to three _____ terms.
consecutive elective
This man called TR's supporters "emotionalists and neurotics."
The Republican convention of 1912 met in this city. The Rooseveltites, who were about _____ delegates short of winning the nomination, challenged the right of some _____ Taft delegates to be seated. The Roosevelt adherents later refused to vote, thinking that Taft and his supporters were steamrolling their way to get the nomination, which was basically true. Nonetheless, not voting means Taft wins.
100; 250