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144 Cards in this Set

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Filipinos had assumed that they, like these people, would be granted freedom at the end of the Spanish American War.
Cubans
led an open insurrection against American troops, on February 4, 1899
Emilio Aguinaldo
was the polite little adjective used to describe the horrible war with Spain.
"splendid"
were angered by the fact that we were fighting another war overseas.
anti-imperialists
The war with the Filipinos was this many miles away… the anti-imperialists were furious, especially since the Filipinos wanted nothing but American-style liberty (and donuts).
10,000 miles
The Filipinos, beginning to be defeated, started going into jungles to practice this type of fighting.
guerilla warfare
Because guerillas were using methods we didn't like, we tried to get even. We implemented this policy, which the Spanish "Butcher" Weyler had implemented in Cuba.
reconcentration policy
This was a torture method whereby we forced water down victims' throats until they yielded information or died.
"water cure"
Though sporadic fighting dragged on for many dreary months afterward, we finally captured Aguinaldo in this year.
1901
He was the president during all this Filipino warfare.
McKinley
In 1899, McKinley appointed this to make appropriate recommendations about issues in Philippines.
Philippine Commission
In its second year, the Philippine Commission was headed by future president…
William H. Taft
Taft was an able and amiable lawyer-judge from this state, and weight about this many pounds.
Ohio; 350
Taft called Filipinos this, and then danced light-footedly with their tiny women (???).
"little brown brothers"
Making Filipinos more American (but not giving them freedom, apparently) was called McKinley's "_____." It included pouring millions of US dollars into the Philippines to improve roads, sanitation, and public health. We also supported their _____ trade ('cuz Taft hungry!).
benevolent assimilation; sugar
American teachers, called this, set up an unusually good school system and helped make English a second language.
"pioneers of the blackboard"
Filipinos finally got their freedom on this date.
Fourth of July, 1946
All told, this many Filipinos died in the three years of fighting following Philippine annexation in 1898.
600,000
Following China's defeat in 1894-1895, the imperialistic European powers, notably these two countries, moved in to create leaseholds and economic "_____."
Russia and Germany; spheres of influence
This government ruled in China during the period of spheres-of-influence-carving.
Manchu
American _____ worried about their strongholds in China; _____ and _____ feared that Chinese markets would be monopolized by Europeans.
churches; manufacturers and exporters
An alarmed American public, openly prodded by the _____ and unofficially prodded by certain free-trade _____, demanded that Washington do something.
press; Britons
This man, holding this government job title, who was also a quiet but witty poet-novelist-diplomat with a flair for capturing the popular imagination, finally decided to do something in China.
Secretary of State John Hay
This was dispatched to the great powers in the summer of 1899, in regards to China. It said that Europeans should respect certain Chinese rights and the ideal of fair competition within their leaseholds and spheres of influence.
Open Door note
This country alone accepted the Open Door unconditionally, since it was the only major power that had no leasehold or sphere of influence in China.
Italy
These four countries would eventually accept the Open Door, on the condition that all the other powers acquiesce unconditionally. This other country, with covetous designs on China's _____, in effect politely declined.
Britain, Germany, France, Japan; Russia, Manchuria
In 1900, a group of superpatriotic Chinese known as the "_____" broke loose with the cry "_____."
Boxers; Kill Foreign Devils
The Boxers killed over #_____ _____ and other ill-fated whites. A number of foreign diplomats were besieged in the capital, _____(_____).
200; missionaries; Beijing (Peking)
A _____ is where many nations team up to fight some common enemy, in this case, the Boxers.
joint military operation
A joint military operation, consisting of this many troops, were assembled by these five countries. American contribution was some #_____ men.
18,000; Britain; Japan; Russia; France; Germany; USA; 2,500
China was charged an indemnity of $_____, of which America's share was to be $_____.
333 million; 24.5 million
We remitted $_____ of our $24.5 million to the Chinese. The Beijing government, appreciating this gesture of good-will, set aside the money to educate a selected group of Chinese students in the United States. These bright young scholars later played a significant role in the westernization of Asia.
18 million
John Hay sent one of these once he realized that the Boxer rebellion might give European powers a reason to want to carve up China again.
circular note
This circular note announced that henceforth the Open Door would embrace the _____ integrity of China, in addition to its commercial integrity. He decided not to ask for formal acceptances this time.
territorial
China was spared, but not because of Hay, because of _____ between the countries trying to split it up.
competition
BREAK FOR FILIPINO MAKERS OF AMERICA PAGES.
mhm!
Almost immediately after we took the Philippines in annexation, the American governor of the archipelago sent a corps of Filipino _____ to the US, hoping to forge future leaders steeped in American ways. This wasn’t too successful, and the Americans hated them.
students
Because immigrants from this country was banned, Hawaii and the Pacific states had to turn to the Philippines for cheap workers.
China
Beginning in 1906, this organization began to recruit Filipino workers. Enlistments grew slowly at first, but by the 1920s thousands of Filipino men had reached the Hawaiian islands and been assigned to _____ or _____.
Hawaiian Sugar Planters Association; sugar plantations; pineapple fields
Typically, a young Filipino wishing to emigrate first made his way to this city, where he signed a contract with the growers that promised this many years of labor in return for transportation to Hawaii, wages, free housing and fuel, and return passage at the end of the contract. Not all emigrants decided to return, though.
Manila; three
Some Filipinos moved inland in the US. Many mainlanders worked seasonally--in winter as _____, _____, or _____; in summer journeying to the fields to harvest ____, _____, _____, or _____. Eventually Filipinos and these people made up California's agricultural work force
domestic servants, busboys, bellhops; lettuce, strawberries, sugar beets, potatoes; Mexicans
In California in 1930, there was only one female Filipino for every _____ males.
14
Some _____, or anti-mixed race marriage laws, were passed in California and other states that prohibited the marriage of Asians and Caucasians; such laws remained on the books until 1948.
anti-miscegenation laws
White vigilante groups roamed the _____ in Washington and the _____ and _____ valleys in California, intimidating and even attacking Filipinos whom they accused of improperly approaching white women.
Yakima Valley; San Joaquin and Salinas
In 1930 one Filipino was killed and several wounded after having invited white women to _____. Filipinos continued to lack political leverage until _____ when they became eligible for citizenship.
dance; 1946
Between 1950 and 1970, Filipino population nearly doubled, with men and women stepping off of trans-Pacific _____ in roughly equal numbers. Many sprang from middle-class stock and sought in America a better life for their children than the Philippines seemed able to offer.
airliners
This is the number one exporter of Asian people wishing to settle in the United States.
Philippines
McKinley was the _____ party nominee for his second term. His supporter, _____, had been a _____ from the state of _____, and continued to support McKinley.
Republican; Mark Hanna; senator; Ohio
The president was renominated at _____ on a platform that endorsed _____, the _____, and _____.
Philadelphia; prosperity; gold standard; overseas expansion
This was the man, the cowboy-hero of _____, who had become a popular bid for the vice presidential nomination.
Theodore Roosevelt (TR); San Juan Hill
As a war hero, TR was elected _____ in the state of _____, where local political bosses had found him headstrong and difficult to manage.
governor; New York
NY political bosses wanted to do this to the president, to get rid of him in New York politics.
"kick TR upstairs" into the vice presidency
TR's western-style _____ made him stand out. He had no desire to serve as VP, calling the job a "_____." He was, however, eager to prove that he could get the nomination if he wanted it.
cowboy hat; burying ground
Perhaps he called the vice presidency a burying ground because the previous VP, _____, had died while in office in 1899 (elected in 1897).
Garret A. Hobart
TR received a unanimous vote, except his own. _____ was kind of worried that TR was "_____" away from the presidency, but everybody else was excited in chanting "_____," expressing their enthusiasm.
one heartbeat; We want Teddy
Meeting in _____, _____ became the Democratic nominee. The _____ issue was now defunct, but the nominee continued to stress his stance on it. The Democratic platform, nonetheless, claimed that the "_____" of the election was Republican _____.
Kansas City; William Jennings Bryan; free-silver; paramount issue; overseas imperialism
Like in the last election, McKinley engaged in a "_____" campaign while Bryan took to the stump, assailing both _____ and _____.
"front porch"; imperialism; trusts
TR out-Bryaned Bryan. He toured the country with revolver-shooting _____, and his popularity cut heavily into Bryan's support in the _____.
cowboys; Midwest
Bryanite logic: _____ had abolished slavery for _____ Africans; McKinley had reestablished it for _____ Malayans.
Lincoln; 3.5 million; 7 million
The concept of _____ stipulated that Bryan, if president, would rock the boat of prosperity with his free-silver lunacy and other dangerous ideas; Republicans said this was the "paramount" issue. Republicans said that this, not imperialism, was the "paramount" issue.
Bryanism
McKinley won the electoral count _____ to Bryan's _____.
292; 155
The election didn't prove much, just that people liked McKinley more than Bryan, personality-wise. The election was a mandate, however, for the "_____," which were _____ and _____.
two Ps; prosperity; protection
This man gleefully looked forward to Inauguration Day, when he would see Roosevelt "take the veil" as vice president. Remember kicking the president upstairs? Yeah, one of those people.
"Boss" Platt of New York
McKinley served just _____ months before he was shot, in September 1901, by a deranged _____. Roosevelt became president at age _____, the youngest thus far in American history (youngest president to serve, not to be elected, because _____ was elected president at age _____).
six; anarchist; 42; John F. Kennedy; 43
TR was born into a wealthy family based in _____, graduated from _____ with _____ honors, and at age _____ published some _____ volumes of scholarly prose.
New York; Harvard; Phi Beta Kappa; 24; thirty
After those years, TR had duties involving being a _____ owner and bespectacled cowboy ("_____") in the _____, followed by holding various political posts.
ranch; Dakotas; Four Eyes
TR shook the hands of some _____ people at one stretch or ride horseback many miles in a day as an example for portly _____.
6,000; cavalry officers
This was the term for a group of athletic, sports-playing cronies of TR.
"the tennis cabinet"
Incurably boyish and bellicose, TR loved to fight--"_____." He never ceased to preach the virile virtues and to denounce civilized softness, with its _____ and other "_____" and "_____."
an elegant row; pacifists; flubdubs; mollycoddles
TR's motto:
"Speak softly and carry a big stick, [and] you will go far."
At a wedding, TR eclipsed the bride; at a funeral, the corpse.
mmmkay
TR was self-righteous and self-confident. As a true cosmopolite, he loved people and mingled with those of all ranks, from _____ to _____, one of whom blinded a Rooseveltian eye in a White House bout.
Catholic cardinals; professional prizefighters
Though a staunch party man, TR detested many of the dirty-handed bosses; but he learned, as _____ never did, to hold his nose and work with them.
Cleveland
Above all, Roosevelt was a _____. He believed that the president should lead; and although he made mistakes, he kept things noisily moving--generally forward.
direct-actionist
Never a _____, TR condemned the law and the courts as too slow. Finding the _____ too rigid, he would on occasion ignore it; finding _____ too rebellious, he tried a mixture of coercion and compromise on it. He believed the president could do anything not forbidden by Constitution.
lawyer; Constitution; Congress
TR traveled more through _____ and enjoyed a far more intimate knowledge of the outside world than most of his predecessors. He visited the _____ construction site in 1906 and became the first president to travel abroad during his term(s).
Europe; Panama Canal
Americans had learned a sobering lesson when this battleship, stationed on the Pacific Coast at the outbreak of war in 1898, had to steam all the way around South America to join the fleet in _____n waters
Oregon; Cuba
Alarmists speculated on what might have happened if the Oregon had not arrived in time for the _____ and if the Spanish fleet had been stronger.
Battle of Santiago
Such a waterway across the Central American isthmus would plainly augment the strength of our navy. It would also make easier the defense of such recent acquisitions as _____, _____, and _____, while facilitating the operations of the American _____.
Puerto Rico; Hawaii; the Philippines; merchant marine
By the terms of this ancient treaty, concluded with this country in 1850, the US could not secure exclusive control over such a route across Central America.
Clayton-Bulwer Treaty (1850); Britain
By 1901, Britain was willing to yield ground from the C-B Treaty. Confronted with an unfriendly Europe and bogged down in the _____, they concluded the _____ in 1901. It not only gave the US a free hand to build the canal but conceded the right to _____ as well.
South African Boer War; Hay-Pauncefote Treaty; fortify
Many Americans favored the _____ route, but agents of the old _____ were eager to salvage something from their costly failure at S-shaped _____.
Nicaraguan; French Canal Company; Panama
Represented by a young, energetic, and unscrupulous engineer, _____, the _____ suddenly dropped the price of its holdings from $_____ to the fire-sale price of $_____.
Philippe Bunau-Varilla; New Panama Canal Company; 109 million; 40 million
The Nicaragua-versus-Panama issue was hotly debated in Congress, where a serious objection to Nicaragua was its _____. Providentially for Bunau-Varilla, _____ on the West Indian island of _____ blew its top in May 1902 and wiped out some _____ people.
volcanic activity; Mount Pelée; Martinique; 30,000
The clever Frenchman (Bunau-Varilla) hastily secured #_____ Nicaraguan _____, each bearing a picture of the country's most fearsome volcano, and sent one to each _____.
ninety; postage stamps; senator
This man also lobbied for the Panama route, stressing engineering advantages, during a Senate speech. Congress approves in June 1902.
Hanna
This country was in control of Panama.
Colombia
A treaty highly favorable to the US was negotiated with the agent of the Colombian government in _____.
Bogota
The treaty granted the release of a _____-mile-wide zone in perpetuity, in return for $_____ and an annual payment of $_____. But when the pact was submitted to the _____, it was unanimously rejected.
6; 10 million; 250,000; Bogota Senate
Isthmian strip was too important for Colombia to give up for that bargain price; hindsight evidence, however, suggests that they would have approved if we had been willing to pay an additional $_____.
15 million
Roosevelt called Bogota Senators this term.
"those dagoes" or "the blackmailers of Bogota"
Because he wanted to become president "in his own right" in 1904, TR was anxious to "_____" to impress the voters. He said, "Damn the law, I want the canal built!" He called Bogota senators highwaymen who were trying to block the onward march of civilization.
make the dirt fly
Bunau-Varilla, fearing that the US could turn to Nicaraguan route and thus lose his $40 mil, he raised a tiny "_____" army consisting largely of members of the Panamanian _____, plus #_____ paid mercenaries from Colombia--for a reported price of $_____.
patriot; fire department; 500; 100,000
The _____ occurred on November 3, 1903, with the incidental killing of a _____ and a _____.
Panamanian revolution; Chinese civilian; donkey
Colombian troops were gathered to crush the uprising, but the US naval forces would not let them cross the isthmus. TR justified this highly questionable interference by a strained interpretation of the _____ with Colombia. (The pact obligated Washington to maintain the "_____" of the isthmus, obviously against outsiders.)
treaty of 1846
TR recognized the Panamanian government this many days after the uprising.
three
Fifteen days after TR grants recognition, Bunau-Varilla, who was now the Panamanian minister despite his French citizenship, signed the _____ in Washington. The price of the canal strip was left the same, but the zone was widened from 6 to _____ miles. The French company gladly pocketed its $40 mil from the Treasury.
Hay--Bunau-Varilla treaty; 10
TR himself did not actively plot to tear Panama away from Colombia, but his reputation and angrily expressed views created the impression that he had been a secret party to the intrigue.
Good to know.
Unhappily, the US suffered a black eye as a result of TR's "_____." European imperialists sensed some hypocritical behavior.
cowboy diplomacy
The so-called _____ marked an ugly downward lurch in the US relations with Latin America. Much fear had already been aroused by the recent seizure of _____ and by the Yankee stronghold on _____.
rape of Panama; Puerto Rico; Cuba
TR launched an era of "Big Brother" policy-making, also called the "_____" policy.
Bad Neighbor
TR claimed that he had received a "_____" to start the canal and that Colombia had wronged the United States by not permitting itself to be benefited.
mandate from civilization
TR, wanting to make the dirt fly as we said, could not favor a Nicaraguan route; it would take too long even though he could acquire it without _____.
revolution
An energetic but autocratic West Point engineer, _____, was in charge of organizing the canal project. He also held the title of "Governor of the Panama Canal Zone."
Colonel George Washington Goethals
Sanitation was much improved by the quiet and determined exterminator of _____ in _____, this man, who made the Canal Zone "as safe as a health resort."
yellow fever; Havana; Colonel William C. Gorgas
Americans finally succeeded where the French had failed. In 1914 the colossal canal project was completed at an initial cost of about $_____, just as WWI was breaking out.
400 million
The whole Panama Canal enterprise, in the words of the English writer _____, was "the greatest liberty Man has ever taken with Nature."
James Bryce
Latin American _____ created the conditions for further Rooseveltian involvement in affairs south of the border. Nations such as _____ and _____ were chronically in arrears in the payments to European creditors, particularly _____ and _____.
debt defaults; Venezuela; the Dominican Republic; Britain; Germany
Seeking to force payment, _____ warships sank two _____ gunboats and bombarded a town in early 1903.
German; Venezuelan
The ironfisted intervention aroused Roosevelt.
hehe
TR feared that if the Germans or British got their foot in the door as bill collectors, they might remain in Latin America, in flagrant violation of this.
the Monroe Doctrine
Roosevelt devised a devious policy of "_____," better known as this.
preventive intervention; Roosevelt Corollary of the Monroe Doctrine
The Roosevelt Corollary made these four sequential points in the event of future financial malfeasance by the Latin American nations.
1) intervene; 2) take over the customshouses; 3) pay off the debts; 4) keep the troublesome powers on the other side of the Atlantic
Uncle Sam was a figurative this.
Policeman of the Caribbean
This new brandishing of the big stick in the Caribbean became effective in 1905, when the US took over the management of _____ in the _____, an arrangement formalized in a treaty with them two years later.
tariff collections; Dominican Republic
The Monroe Doctrine had said this, but the Roosevelt Corollary said this.
"Thou shalt not intervene"; "We shall intervene to prevent you from intervening."
As time wore on, the R.Coroll. was used to justify wholesale interventions and repeated landings of the _____, all of which helped turn the Caribbean into a "_____."
marines; Yankee lake
US marines landed in _____ in 1906, and withdrew in 1909. However, it left a lasting impression that the US was a Colossus of the North.
Cuba
TR saw a chance to perform as a global statesman after the outbreak of war between _____ and _____ in 1904.
Russia; Japan
Russia really wanted to acquire the ice-free ports of China's _____, particularly _____.
Manchuria; Port Arthur
The Japanese didn't want to give up _____ or _____ to the tsar.
Manchuria; Korea
After having captured Manchuria during the Boxer Rebellion, the tsar stalled in giving it back, until his _____ could be built (as it was in a few months).
trans-Siberian railroad
The Japanese, after firing upon the Russians at Port Arthur in 1904, delivered humiliating defeats--the first serious military setback to a European power by a non-European force since the _____ invasions of the 1500s.
Turkish
Japan, short on men and yen, approached TR in the deepest secrecy and asked him to help sponsor peace negotiations, which would occur in _____ in 1905.
Portsmouth, New Hampshire
The Japanese demands:
1) huge indemnity; 2) entire strategic island of Sakhalin
Roosevelt, in this _____ (name of the event), forced through an accord in which the Japanese received no indemnity and only the _____ half of Sakhalin.
Portsmouth Conference; southern
This was the honor received for mediating Portsmouth Conference and helping to arrange an international conference at _____ in 1906 to mediate _____ disputes.
Nobel Peace Prize; Algeciras, Spain; North African
Russian-American relations were strained. Russia accused us of robbing them of military victory and we were angry that the tsar was killing _____ in the _____.
Jews; pogroms
Japan felt robbed of this.
indemnity
A new restlessness swept over the _____ of Japan, largely as a result of the dislocations and tax burdens caused by the recent conflict. Numerous Japanese laborers, with their wives and children, began to pour into the spacious valleys of _____.
rice paddies; California
By 1906 this many Japanese lived along the West Coast. Americans feared the so-called "_____."
70,000; yellow peril
In this year, a massive _____ hit the city of _____.
1906; earthquake; San Francisco
The _____ in San Francisco decreed that Japanese children should attend a special school.
school board
Irresponsible talk of war ensued in the "_____"--the real "yellow peril." They reported on the fact that Japanese were rightfully outraged at San Fran's racism, but then exaggerated its ramifications.
yellow press
Afraid that a war between California and Japan would force all the states to send in troops, TR invited the _____ to the White House, including the organization's head, the bassoon-playing _____ under indictment for _____.
San Francisco School Board; mayor; graft
The school board was forced to repeal its racist measure and to accept what became known as the "_____."
Gentlemen's Agreement
In the Gentlemen's Agreement, Japan agreed to stop the flow of _____ to the American mainland by withholding _____, and CA repealed the school order.
laborers; passports
Not wanting to seem like he's afraid of Japan in issuing the Gentlemen's Agreement, TR decided to send the entire _____ fleet on a highly visible voyage around the world.
battleship
Late in 1907, #_____ sparkling-white battleships started from _____ waters. Their commander pointedly declared that he was ready for "a feast, a frolic, or a fight."
sixteen; Virginia
The so-called _____ received tumultuous welcomes in these four areas.
Great White Fleet; Latin America; Hawaii; New Zealand; Australia
Tens of thousands of Japanese schoolchildren (kimonoed Japanese schoolchildren) had been trained to wave tiny US flags and sing "_____"--reportedly in English!
The Star-Spangled Banner
This was signed in the warm diplomatic atmosphere created by the visit of the fleet, in which Japan and the US agreed to respect each others' territorial holdings in _____ and to uphold the _____.
Root-Takahira agreement of 1908; the Pacific; Open Door in China
New slogan of the navy:
"Join the Navy and See the World."
Problems with Japanese kids in San Francisco was called (by Toy repeatedly)
Japanese school incident