Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/174

Click to flip

174 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Plants causing malnutrition syndromes
Allium
Aloysia lycoides
Prosopis
Allium spp . common name
onions and garlic
Prosopis spp common name
mesquite
Honey mesquite
Prosopsis toxic principle
Arabinose a 5 - carbon sugar
Theory of Prosopsis toxic principle
arabinose in the diet may cause a B-vitamin deficiency by inhibiting microbial growth
Prosopis spp animals affected
primariy cattle
But also goats.
Prosopis clinical signs
Cattle consuming fallen beans for approx 2 monhts
gradual emaciation
Profuse salivation
Ruminal atony
During hot weather, denuding of skin
submandibular glands swollen - firm
Protruding tongue
inability to prehense feed
animals tend to lick at hay
Prosopis spp lesions
emaciation
Brain usually congested
Kidneys small and very firm
Liver small and firm w/tough sapsule - slate colored
rumen filled w/mesquite beans
visible change in ruminal mucosa - pronounced microscopically
gastroenteritis w/wo hemorrhages
Atrophy of masseter and lingual muscle
slaivary glands may be hypertrophic, neuronal damage in trigeminal nerve
Prosopis horse disease manifestation
GI obstruction
Plants producing a vasotropic disease
Claviceps spp
C. pupurea
C. cinerea
C. paspali
Claviceps toxic principle
Lysergic acid diehtylamide
Ergotamine
Ergonovine
Polypeptide derivatives of this indole alkaloid
Claviceps disease syndromes
C. purpurea - rye grass - both syndromes
C. cinerea - tobossa grass - both syndromes
C. paspail - Dallis grass and Bhia grass - Neuro only
Claviceps pathogenesis
alkaloids cause vasoconstriction
Also cause damage to intima of blood vessels - Thrombus formation - compromised circulation
Claviceps animals affected
primarily cattle
others includ humans may be involved
Claviceps clinical signs
Nervous and Gangrene syndromes
Incoordination, Nervousness, Trembling, Convulsions
Abortions during nervous stage
Gangrene - lameness necrotic ear margins, tall witch loss, line of demarkation
Claviceps spp lesions
Gangrene
limbes
tail switch
margins of ear
Ergopeptine alkaloids pathogenesis
gangren in horses and death in cattle and horses can occur when ergot alkaloid exposure approaches 1 % - 10000 ppm
Claviceps spp DDX
Eptheliotrophic viral diseases
Vesicular disease - FMD
Frost bite
Frozen extremities
Festuca arundinacea common name
Tall Fescue Grass
Festuca arundinacea toxi principle alkaloids
endophyte produced - fungus - Erogavline - 90 %

Plant produced = peroline - Perolidine
Festuca spp endophyte
Acremonium coenophialum
Endophyte produces ergot alkaloid but induces plant to produce perloline alkaloids
Endophyte free fescu is non-toxic
Festuca spp animals affected
Cattle
sheep in Australia
Horses
Festuca spp clinical signs
Fescue foot
Summer Syndrome - Hyperthrmia
Fat necrosis
Agalactia and Reproductive Effects
Festuca clinical signs trigger
Temps under <40
Festuca spp Fescue foot clinical signs
Cooler season
minimum of 7 day exposure
lameness, reddening of coronary band
Hair loss
Festuca spp clinical signs - Fescue foot
Weight loss
Gangrene : tips of ears, feet, tail switch. Laminitis in horses and cattle
Festuca spp clinical signs summer syndrome
Poor performance
Failure to shed winter coate
Hyperpnea - hyperpyrexia
derpessed milk production /hypoprolactemia,
Standing in water
Festuca spp clinical signs fat necrosis
may follow summer syndrome
animals develop sq masses following weight loss
necrotic fat masses w/cacification
May be in abdominal cavity
Festuca spp clinical signs - repro/cattle
Stillb irths
Abortions
prolonged gestation
Reduced conception rates
Festuca spp clincial signs - repro horses
dystocia
agalcatia - hyprolactemia
foal starvation
Lack of colustrum
Still births, abortion
prolonged gestation
retained placentas
no udder development
mare martality, goals alive or dead
Festica spp lesions
Depends upon syndrome and species
gangrene
fat necrosis
etc.
Festuca spp Tx
REmove from affected pastures
Use sentinel animals
domperione - Alpha 2 blocker - yohimbine
metaclopamide may be of use
Juglans spp common name
Black Wlnut
Juglans nigra common name
Eastern Black Walnut
Juglans microcarpa common name
Texas Black Walnut
Juglans major common name
Arizona Black Walnut
Juglans spp Toxic principle
Phenolic derivative of naptholquinone
Juglone
Possibly other unidentified agents
Juglans spp clinical signs
HORSES only
via contact or ingestion
Liminitis and some allergic reactions
Depression
Pitting Edema
Juglans spp Lesion
consistent with laminitis
urticaria
Juglans spp treatment
Prevention
remove source
prevent access
supportive care for laminitis and allergic reactions
Plants causing abortion in domestic animals
Astragulus spp - locoweed
Gutierrezia spp - perennial broomweed
Pinus ponderosa - Ponderosa Pine
Oxytorpix spp - Locoweed
Gutierrezia spp toxic agent
triterpenoid saponin
may function as prosaglandin inhibitor, blocker or mimics
Plants more toxic on sandy soils than on tight soils
Gutierrezia spp animals affected
cattle primarily
sheep may be involved
other animals are susceptible
goats, swine, lab animals
Gutierrezia spp clinical signs -acute
listlessness
anorexia
diarrhea or constipation
mucous in feces
vaginal dishcarge
hematuria
death
Gutierrezia spp abortion
any stage of gestation
primarily in 3rd trimester
weak underwieght calves
retained placenta w/wo abortion
early udder development
Gutierrezia spp lesions
Gastroenteritis - acute
degenerative changes in liver
toxic nephritis
edema of fetal membranes
icterus
Guteirrezia spp prevention
no treatment
remove pregnant animals from pastures w/ broomweed esp on sandy soils
Gutierrezia spp toxin
saponin
Xanthocephalum texana
annual broomweed
Xanthocephalum texana is
non toxic
iva angustifolia common name
Sumpweed
Iva angustifolia distribution
Ark
Texa
Lousisiana
Okla
iva angustifolia habitat
Bogs wtih good drainage - wet areas
hillsides or creek bottoms
iva angustifolia toxic principle
unknown
Iva angustifolia animals affected
cattle
sheep
rabbits experimental
Plants inducing teratogenesis
Astragulus spp
Conium maculatum
Lothyrus odoratus
Lupinus sericeus
Nicotiana
Veratrum
Vicia
Locoweeds
Astragalus
Oxytropis
Astragalus/oxytropis toxic principle
Swainsonine
Swainsonine MOA
INhibits a-Mannosidase
Lysosomal storage disease
reversible to a degree
CNS most susceptible
Locoweed disease syndromes organ systems affected
CNA
CP
Repro
Teratogenesis
habituation
Conium spp common name
Poison hemlock
Conium spp toxic priniciple
Coniine
affects pigs and cattle
produces neuro and terato syndromes
Coniine MOA
unknown
If pigs are fed coniine at day 30 - 45 it produces
cleft palate
If pigs are fed coniine at day 43 - 53 it produces
arthrogryposis, flexure of fetlock joints, scoliosis, hydrocephalus
If cattle are fed Coniine during day 40 - 70 it produces
arthrogryposis
similar to crooked calf disease due to lupines
Nicotiana spp common name
Tobacco
Tree tobacco
Nicotiana spp toxic principle
anabasin
affects pigs primarily but also sheep and cattle
similar to coniine
Lupinus spp common name
Lupines
Bluebonnets
Lipinus texensis is the
state flower of Texas
Lupinus spp toxic principles
anagyrine
cattle are extremely susceptible
sheep are extremely resistant to the teratogenic effects but may develop acute neurological dis
Cattle should not ingest lupinus - anagyrine in days
40 -70
Lupinus clinical signs
rough dry hair coat
nervousness
depression
reluctance to move about
difficulaty in breathing
twitching
frothing at the mouth
respiratory paralysis and death
Lupinus spp teratogenic effects
arthrogryposis
cleft palate
combination
Veratrum californicum common name
False hellebore
Skunk Cabbage
Veratrum toxic principle
alkaloid
jervine
cyclopamine
cycloposine
steroidal glycoalkaloids
Veratrum MOA
Cranio-facial defects occur during neural tube stage
effects on bone and cartilage
Veratrum spp animals affected
primarily sheep - naturally
cattle and goats experimentall
Veratrum spp clinical syndromes
hypotension - CV
teratogenesis
dilates arterioles
constricts venous vascular beds
vomiting
paralysis
bradycardia
convulsions
slows heart rate
Veratrum teratogenesis on day 14
cyclopia
proboscis
bull-dog jaw
cleft palate
prolonged gestation
Veratrum day 27 - 28
collapsed trachea
shortened metacarpals
shortened metatarsals
cleft lip and palate
Veratrum prevention
don't breed ewesunitl after frost
don't move ewes to infest pastures until 35 - 40 days after removing rams
Ruminant hypomagnesemia
Grass tetany
Wheat pasture poisoning
downer cow syndrome
Downer cow syndrome can be caused by
Senna
hypomagnesemia
hypomagnesemia can be caused by
lush green wheat pastures
heavily fertilized fields with nitrogen and potassium
Hypomagnesemia predisposing factors
decreased energy intake
stressful situation: pregnancy, lactation
cool to cold weather
recent transportation
hypomagnesemia interferes with
neuro-muscular function
enzyme function
Hypomagnesemia clinical signs
uneasiness
nervousness
muscle twitching
excitable
incoordination
laert recumbent cow
increased rectal temp
convulsions
Hypomagnesemia clin-path finding
decreased Ca, MG, P
increased TSP
Globulins
K+
Hypomagnesemia treatment
calcium borogluconate w/ dextrose, magnesium, phosphate
Hypomagnesemia prevention
provided energy source via grain or molasses
add Mg to mineral supplement
Hypomagnesemia DDX
hypocalcemia - milk fever
ketosis
rabies
Cyanide poisoning
Hydrogen cyanide
cyanogen chloride
prussic acid
Cyanogens are also called
Blood agents
not good terrorist weapon
CN- normal metabolism
CN- + Vit B12 = cyanocobalamin
CN - + Sulfanes = thiosyanates + sulfates
Sulfane and sulfate reaction with CN- is catalyzed by
rhodanese
Sulfane and sulfate reaction is
essentially irreversible
Hydrogen cyanide plants
cyanogenetic clycoside - hydrolysis in plants
Hydrogen cyanide spp
Sorghum - Johnson grass
and various sorghum crops
Prunus spp - peaches, plums
laetrile
made from peach pits
touted for cancer
childrem and pets at risk
Hydrogen cyanide has a
fiant musty odor of bitter almonds, peach pits, or burning rope
HCN has what onset time
seconds with high inhaled concentrations
HCN MOA
Action in cells, not in blood
interruption of cellular respiration in mitochondira
cyt a3 is
cytochrome oxidase
CN- has higher affinity for the ____ in ______
Fe3+
methamoglobin
CN- Effects on cells and blood
No generation of ATP
Extraction of O2 from blood
Pasteur shift to anaerobic glycolysis, lactic acidosis and high anion gap
CN- Effects at organ level
Carotid and aortic chemoreceptors - intense stimulation
CNS - depression
heart - accumlation in left ventricle, increased O2 demeand, dysrhythmias and heart failure
CN- animals affected
humans
rminants
horses
any other species
CN- progression of symptoms and signs
increase in rate and depth of respiration
hypertension and tachycardia
convulsion
respiratory depression and arrest
bradycardia, hypotension and cardiac arrest
Sorghum cystitis in horses
Chronic cyanide poisoning
dribbling of urine
posterior ataxia
incapable of abdominal press - full bladder
loss of reproductive ability
no treatment
Sorghum cystitis in horses lesions
dermatitis in affected areas
full bladder with thickened walls
chronic cystitis w ascending inflammation in ureters
demyelinating neuropathy in posterior spinal cord
Treatment of sorghumsystitis in horses
supportive therapy
Amyl Nitrite
Amyl nitrite is given via ____ and _____
inhalation
converts Hb Fe2+ to metHb Fe 3+
fire retardant
Sodium nitrite(NaNO2)
converts HbO2 to met Hb
Adverse affects of NaNO2
methemoglobinemia
hypotension
Sodium Thiosulfate is used for
treating CN- poisoning by forming thiocyanate and sulfite (excreted by kidney)
New treatment of CN- poisoning
Hydroxycobalamin
It enters the mitochondria
red colored urine
hypertension
allergic reaction
Diagnosis of cyanide poisoning
sodium picrate test - plants only
Nitrate/Nitrate poisoning
methemoglobinemia
methemoglobinemia sources
Water
plants
wastes
chemicals
tylenol
NO2-/NO2- poisoning plant species
Amaranthus
Sorghum
Avena - winter oats
Zea spp - corn
NO2/NO3 poisoning animals affects
Ruminants w/nitrates or nitrites on low energy rations
monogastrics - must be nitrites
Pets - primarily acetomenophen
With adequate _______ rumen micorflora converts ____ into
NH3
protein
With NO2 /NO3 poisoning the blood turns
brown - metHb
NO2/NO3 clinical signs - acute
colicky pain
diarrhea
dyspnea
muscular tremors
staggering gati
muddy mucous membranes
NO2/NO3 poisoning clinical signs - sub-acute/chronic
No scientific evidence
Feed grain for energy
NO2/NO3 poisoning treatment
Methylene Blue
NOT NMB
Sodium Ion intoxication syndrome
Combination of too much salt intake and water deprivation
Or excess water/fluid loss
Na ion/water deprivation animals affected
Swine - probably most suceptible
Cattle
Poultry
Sheep
Horses
Human infants by misformulation
Dogs - paint ball intoxication
Heat prostration in humans
Sodium Ion/Water Deprivation confounding factors
Automatic waterers mechanical or forzen
medicated water
unfamiliar water supply
Sodium Ion/Water Deprivation MOA
Increased EC Na causes IC dehydration causing decreased energy production causing Na/K pump stops
Na leaks into cell setting up osmotic gradient to draw water into cell - cerebral edema
Sodium ion/water deprivation syndrome clinical signs
swine - early increased thirst puritis, constipation - rarely seen
Sodium Ion/Water Deprivation clinical signs other animals
poultry
ruminants - abdominal and CNS signs
Sodium ion clinical signs in horses
peracute - occurs with massive ingestion
chronic - characterized by dehydration, stiffness, and anorexia
Sodium ion clinical signs in dogs
vomiting
polydipsia
Polyuria
tremors
seizures
hyperthermia
Sodium ion lesions gross
pigs and ruminants - gastric inflammation and ulceration
pinpoint ulcers filled with blood
edema of gut wall
visible cerebral edema
Poultry - wet air sacs, discharge from nares
Na ion/Water deprivation swine microscopic lesions
eosinophilic infiltration of virchow-robin may be seen if the animals die within 48 hours
Laminar loss of cortical neurons
Laminar malacia
moderate cerebral edema
Na Ion/Water deprivation other species
Ruminants - polioencephalomalacia
cerebral edema
midbrain edema

Poultry: nephritis, nephrosclerosis
Na ion/Water deprivation diagnosis -
Need brain, feed, SCF and blood
Na ion/Water deprivation TX
not rewarding.
Do not give free access to water
Na ion/Water deprivation DD
viral encephalitides - pseudorabies
pesitcide intoxication
Water deprivation can occur because of
Sulfur content in the water = bad tasting
Non-protein nitrogen sources usually used for
Ruminants can use NPN as an alternative protein source

NH2 to NH3 that flora converts to AA
NPN poisoning predisposing factors
fasting
high roughage diets
lack of adaptation
high ruminal temperature
high ruminal pH
dehydration or low=water intake
hepatic insuffieciency
Too much urea or NPN in ration
NPN MOA
NH3 production is 4X greater than AA production

rumen can convert to NH4+
NPN handling of excess NH4
liver is incapable of biotransforming overload

High levels of ammonia are thought to inhibit glutamate transport at synapse in brain
NPN poisoning clinical signs
apprehension
restlessness
trembling and grinding of teeth
hyperesthesia
mydriasis and nystagmus
increase pulse and respiration
muscle trembling
smell ammonia in rumen
find dead cows
NPN poisoning lesions
bloat
ammonia odor in rumen
status spongiosis in brain
grind teeth
NPN poisoning TX
Cold dilute acetic acid to lower rumen pH to make ammonia return to ammonium

cold water to lower temp
Ammoniated hay in cattle is used to
increase protein content up to 9%
Ammoniate hay can cause
"bonkers"
Ammoniated hay clinical signs
trembling
ear twitching
slaivation
stampeding
convulsions
death
Ammoniated hay DDX
lead toxicosis
pesticide intoxication
urea poisoning
PEM
hypomagnesemia
TEM
Ammoniated hay etiology
4-methylimidazole
will pass in milk
Ionophores are used to
improve efficiency of production of growing and finishing cattle
energy metabolism in the rumen, use of nitrogen metabolism in the rumen
retardation of lactic acidosis and bloat
Ionophores metabolic effects
pushes to proprionate
increase lactate
lower ruminal ammonia
inhibit Gram +
decrease methane production
Ionophores emtabolic effects
mild inhibition of protozoa
depressed rumen content turnover
decreased rumen fluid viscosity in bloated animals
decreased growth yeild efficiency of ruminal microbes
reduction of acidosis
Ionophores
monensin
lasalocis
narasin
slinomycin
Ionophores general information
Antibiotic Gm +
Coccidiostat in poultry
feed additive in cattle
Inophore poisoning in cattle clinical signs
anorexia
diarrhea
labored breathing
ataxia
prostration
death
Ionophores clinical signs horses
MOST SUSCEPTIBLE
anorexia
profuse sweating
hyperventilation
tachycardia, coli
depression
death: hours to days
Ionophores clinical signs in dogs and cats
ascending paralysis leading to respiratory paralysis and deaths in domestic cats
affected cats might also exhibit histologic evidence

paresis/paralysis with retneiton of the ability to wag the tail and move the eyse
death results form apparent respiratory paralysis
Ionophore lesions: cattel
ruminal wall edema
pale and flabby heart - cardiomyopathy
congested liver
Ionophore lesions horses
pale and flabby heart
diaphramatic myopathy
congested lungs, liver and spleen
Ionophore tX
usually unsuccessful
recovered animals exercise intolerant
Ionophores emtabolic effects
mild inhibition of protozoa
depressed rumen content turnover
decreased rumen fluid viscosity in bloated animals
decreased growth yeild efficiency of ruminal microbes
reduction of acidosis
Ionophores
monensin
lasalocis
narasin
slinomycin
Ionophores general information
Antibiotic Gm +
Coccidiostat in poultry
feed additive in cattle
Inophore poisoning in cattle clinical signs
anorexia
diarrhea
labored breathing
ataxia
prostration
death
Ionophores clinical signs horses
MOST SUSCEPTIBLE
anorexia
profuse sweating
hyperventilation
tachycardia, coli
depression
death: hours to days
Ionophores clinical signs in dogs and cats
ascending paralysis leading to respiratory paralysis and deaths in domestic cats
affected cats might also exhibit histologic evidence

paresis/paralysis with retneiton of the ability to wag the tail and move the eyse
death results form apparent respiratory paralysis
Ionophore lesions: cattel
ruminal wall edema
pale and flabby heart - cardiomyopathy
congested liver
Ionophore lesions horses
pale and flabby heart
diaphramatic myopathy
congested lungs, liver and spleen
Ionophore tX
usually unsuccessful
recovered animals exercise intolerant