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22 Cards in this Set

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Toxicology definition
The study of adverse effects of xenobiotic compounds, including their chemical properties, biological effects, & treatments
Toxicant definition
Another term for poison. Any solid, liquid, or gas that when introduced or applied to the body can interfere with the biological processes of cells.
Toxin
Poisons that originate from living organisms (animals, plants, bacteria, etc)
Toxicosis
The disease state which results from exposure to a toxicant
Toxicity
The amount of poison that under a specific set of conditions will cause toxic effects (mg/kg)
Toxicokinetics
Relationship btwn tissue concentration of a toxicant and time - looks at Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Excretion of toxicants
Half-life
The time it takes for 1/2 the toxicant to be eliminated from the body
LD50
Lethal Dose 50%. The dose of a toxicant that will cause death of 50% of animals that receive it.
LC50
Lethal Concentration 50%. The concentration of a toxicant that will cause death of 50% of animals that receive it. Used when referring to toxicants in water or sometimes feed.
MTD
Minimum Toxic Dose/Maximum Tolerated Dose. Dose at which some animals begin to show some signs of toxicity.
Dose-Response
Response of an individual or population to varying doses of chemicals
Acute Toxicity
Effects of single or multiple doses during the first 24 hours after exposure
Chronic Toxicity
The effects of single or multiple doses 90 days or longer after initial exposure
Hazard
The likelihood of poisoning occurring under conditions of usage and exposure
ppm
Part Per Million. Used to express quantity of toxicant mixed w/ another substance.
1ppm = 1 mg tox/kg = .0001%
1ppm = .1 mg tox/100 ml
1.1ppm = 1 gram tox/ton
ppb
Part per Billion. 1 ppb = 1 microgram/1 kg
What are the 6 factors that affect response of an individual animal to a toxicant?
Dose, Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Excretion, and Physiological Factors that affect ADME
Absorption
Route of exposure
Oral is most common
Metabolism
Rate at which toxicant is metabolized
- Biotransformation makes toxicant more polar, less lipophilic, more water soluble
- This may increase or decrease toxic effects
- Biotransformation occurs in liver
- May cause induction or inhibition of metabolic enzymes
Excretion
The rate at which a toxicant is excreted
Dose
Generally, higher the dose, greater the response
Physiologic Factors that affect ADME
Genetics
Age
Sex (adult females metabolize faster than males)
Stage of estrous
Pregnancy
Lactation (white snakeroot not toxic to lactating cows)
Disease condition
Nutritional (pr def = more susceptible, fat in diet may increase absorption if lipid-soluble)
Ability of toxicant to be ionized
Individual Variation!!