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40 Cards in this Set

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What are some chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides (organochlorines)? What's so bad about pesticides?
DDT
Aldrin
Chlordane
-environmentally unfriendly
Some are carcinogens
How do organochlorines get concentrated in the environment?
from run off from environment, then plankton etc, then smaller fish, then larger fish, then when gets to birds
-Concentrates through different levels of hierarchy
What are the 2 mechanisms of action of chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides (organochlorines)?
1) Slows down the turning off of Na+ influx and inhibits turning on of K+ out flux --> partially depolarizes membrane---> **diffuse nervous stimulation
2) Competitive inhibition of binding of GABA at receptor site
-Gaba inhibitory so causes stimulation
How are chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides usually taken into the body?
Usually oral
How long does it take for the onset of organochlorines?
Varies- few minutes to several hours
What are 7 clinical signs of pesticide toxicity?
1) Apprehension
2) Hyperexcitability, continuous chewing movement
3) Muscle tremors
4) Seizures, progressing to convulsions
5) Respiratory depression
6) Coma
7) Death usually follows within 20-60 minutes after onset if clinical signs untreated
Chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides are toxic to what animals?
*Highly toxic to all mammalian systems- potency varies w compound, dose, route of exposure
What are the ramification sof the high lipid solubility and stability of organochlorines?
Environmental contamination and biologic magnification
-Gets more concentrated higher up the food chain
What are 6 differential diagnoses for chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides?
1) Infectious encephalitis
2) Lead poisoning
3) Rabies
4) Eclampsia
5) Canine distemper
6) Convulsant poisons (strychnine)
How do you diagnose organochlorine toxicity?
-History of potential exposure
-Appropriate clinical signs- **Diffuse CNS stimulation
-Chemical analysis GC, GC/MS
What is the first step to the treatment of organochlorine (pesticide) toxicity?
Decontaminate
What should you do to decontaminate an animal w/ acute organochlorine exposure?
Bathe, emetics, activated charcoal, cathartic
What 3 things can you do to decontaminate residue-contaminated livestock?
1) Promote hepatic metabolism (phenobarb-poor)
2) Decreased enterohepatic recirculation/ increased excretion
3) Mobilize body fat- starvation, milking etc
What is the second part of treating organochlorine toxicity?
Sedation
-Diazepam
-Phenobarbital
-Pentobarbital
What is part 3 of treating organochlorine toxicity?
Supportive care
-Maintain fluid and electrolyte balance
What is the prognosis of pesticide toxicity?
Poor
What animals are susceptible to zinc phosphide poisoning?
all species are susceptible but avian species are most affected
What animals are most commonly affected by zinc phosphide poisoning and why?
Avian bc the strong pungent phosphorus odor attracts rodents but makes bait unattractive to other animals, but avian species aren't bothered by the smell
What are 2 sources of zinc, magnesium, or aluminum phosphide?
1) Mole or gopher killers
2) Baits as rodenticides/grain fumigants for insect and rodent control
How long is zinc, magnesium or aluminum phosphide stable in the environment?
~2 weeks under average climatic conditions
Zinc, magnesium or aluminum phosphide are all extremely irritating to______.
GI mucosa
**Why do phosphides have a garlic-like odor (rotten fish)?
Generates phosphine gas- accelerated in moist acidic environment
What is the mechanism of actin of Zinc, magnesium or aluminum phosphide?
-Noncompetitively blocks cytochrome C oxidase
-Blocks electron transfer and inhibits oxidative phosphorylation
-Energy crisis in cells
What organs are affected by Zinc, magnesium or aluminum phosphide toxicity?
Multiple organs are affected
**heart, lungs
What do victims of Zinc, magnesium or aluminum phosphide toxicity usually die from?
Cardiovascular collapse & arrhythmias
What are the gross lesions of Zinc, magnesium or aluminum phosphide toxicity?
Non-specific
- Garlic odor
-Erythema of mucosal surfaces
-Congestion of liver, kidney & lung
-Interlobular lung edema, pleural effusion, subpleural hemorrhages
How long does it take for the signs of Zinc, magnesium or aluminum phosphide toxicity to become apparent?
15 min- 4 h, dose dependent
death w/in 3-5 h
What are the clinical signs of Zinc, magnesium or aluminum phosphide toxicity?
**Severe gastrointestinal pain
**Vomiting
-anorexia, lethargy, weakness/ recumbency
-deep labored respirations
What animals are susceptible to Zinc, magnesium or aluminum phosphide toxicity?
All species
Dogs, horses most common
What are some differential diagnosis for Zinc, magnesium or aluminum phosphide toxicity?
Strychnine
Metaldehyde
Lead
How do you diagnose Zinc, magnesium or aluminum phosphide toxicity?
Difficult to confirm bc goes off as a gas
-Compatible clinical sign/ lesions and GI involvement
How can you identify the chemical related to Zinc, magnesium or aluminum phosphide toxicity?
**stomach contents, vomitus must be *frozen immmediately in *air tight container
-Zing, magnesium, aluminum levels
-Silver nitrate test -quick screen
What are the microscopic lesions of Zinc, magnesium or aluminum phosphide toxicity?
Nonspecific; fatty change/ congestion of liver & kidneys
-Degeneration/ hyaline change/ necrosis of renal tubular cells, hepatocytes and myocardium
What is the treatment for Zinc, magnesium or aluminum phosphide toxicity?
Non-specific, patients don't respond well if clinical signs have already appeared
-Decontamination depending on time
-Aluminum plus MgOH gel PO
-Supportive care
-H2 receptor antagonist
What is the prognosis of Zinc, magnesium or aluminum phosphide toxicity?
POOR!
How do you diagnose Zinc, magnesium or aluminum phosphide toxicity?
Difficult to confirm bc goes off as a gas
-Compatible clinical sign/ lesions and GI involvement
How can you identify the chemical related to Zinc, magnesium or aluminum phosphide toxicity?
**stomach contents, vomitus must be *frozen immmediately in *air tight container
-Zing, magnesium, aluminum levels
-Silver nitrate test -quick screen
What are the microscopic lesions of Zinc, magnesium or aluminum phosphide toxicity?
Nonspecific; fatty change/ congestion of liver & kidneys
-Degeneration/ hyaline change/ necrosis of renal tubular cells, hepatocytes and myocardium
What is the treatment for Zinc, magnesium or aluminum phosphide toxicity?
Non-specific, patients don't respond well if clinical signs have already appeared
-Decontamination depending on time
-Aluminum plus MgOH gel PO
-Supportive care
-H2 receptor antagonist
What is the prognosis of Zinc, magnesium or aluminum phosphide toxicity?
POOR!