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43 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What the locomotor manifestations from chlorinated hydrocarbon toxicity?
fasiculations, spasms, seizures
What autonomic phenomena are manifested with chlorinated hydrocarbon toxicity?
emesis and salivation
What dependent signs can be seen with chlorinated hydrocarbon toxicity?
increase body temperature, increase respiratory rate, and increase depth of respiration
How can toxicity be increased?
by fasting or stress which mobilizes fat stores and release of chemical residues
What structures are most significant for a tissue residue analysis?
brain and liver residues
What characteristic lesions can seen in toxicity
none, pulmonary congestion and edema, and hemorrhages in the GI tract
What treatment is used for skin toxicity?
bathe
What treatment is used for GI toxicity?
induce emesis, activated charcoal, cathartic
What treatment is used for CNS toxicity?
control seizure activity with benzodiazepine(diazepam) and barbiturate(phenobarbital)
What drug may enhance elimination of toxin?
phenobarbital
What is the environmental concern in raptors?
eggshell thinning cause estrogenic effects in birds leading to infertility
What are the insecticides of natural origin?
pyrethrins, pyrethroids, nicotene, rotenone
Which plant is a major source of pyrethrum?
chrysanthemums
What are the pyrethrins?
Pyrethrin I and II, Cinerin I and II, and Jasmolin I and II
What are the synthetic pyrethrins less toxic to non insect spp?
pyrethroids
Which pyrethroids contain CN moiety
the cyano group
What is the presence of CN in type I pyrethroid and type II?
type I- absent, type II- present
Which of the natural origin insectides have the highest environmental staability and why?
pyrethroids, because the pyrethrings are light sensitive and degrade in air
Why are pyrethrins less environmentally stable than pyrethroids?
because pyrethrins are light sensitive and degrade in air
What means of administration has the highest toxic effect?
parenteral administration
Which spp. is pyrethrins and pyrethroids most and least toxic to?
most toxic to insects and fish, least toxic to mammals and birds
What spp. are pyrethrins and pyrethroids best absorbed?
mammals and birds
What absorption is the least, and what is moderate for pyrethroids and pyrethrins?
moderate absorption in the GI(broken down in GI too!)
low dermal absorption
What is the distribution of pyrethrins and pyrethroids?
distribution throughout the body including the CNS
What is the metabolism of pyrethrins and pyrethroids?
metabolism is very rapid
What enzymes aid in pyrethrin and pyrethroid metabolism?
plasma esterases and hepatic oxidases
Is the Cis isomer of pyrethrins and pyrethroids more or less toxic? Do they degrade faster or slower?
Cis isomer degrade slower and they are more toxic
What is the MOA of pyrethrins and pyrethroids?
1. CNS Stimulant- affects Na channels in membranes, suppress inward flow of Na and outward flow of K
2. inhibit ATPase activity
3. II- interferes with receptor binding of GABA and glutamic acid
Which pyrethroid is most toxic?
Pyrethroid II
What clinical signs can be seen with pyrethrin/pyrethroid intoxication?
1. aggressive behavior
2. increase sensitivity to external stimuli
3. tremors
4. prostration
5. increase body temperature
6. chewing movements
7. profuse salivation
8. body tremors and writhing
9. seizures
What clinical signs can be seen with severe intoxication of pyrethrins/pyrthroids?
respiratory collapse
cardiovascular collapse
What is the most important information when diagnosis of intoxication of pyrethrins/pyrethroids?
all information is based on the laboratory experience
How do you treat dermal exposure to pyrethrins/pyrethroids?
bathe
How do you treat oral exposure to pyrethrins/pyrethroids?
emetic, activated charcoal, cathartic
How do you counteract CNS effects of pyrethrins/pyrethroids intoxication?
benzodiazepines(diazepam) and barbituates(phenobarbital)
What natural originated insecticide is significantly toxic to all animals?
nicotine
What is the MOA of nicotine?
acts at all nicotinic cholinergic receptors (CNS, ANS ganglia, skeletal neuromuscular junction, mimics ACh)
What is absorption of nicotine?
rapid absorption across all mucosal surfaces, across skin, and BBB. There is also absorption via GI tract, and Respiratory tract
Is nicotine lipophillic or lipophobic?
lipophilic
What are the initial effects of nicotine toxicity?
salivation
diarrhea
muscle tremors
excitation
increased respiration rate
What are the second effects of nicotine toxicity?
skeletal muscle weakness
ANS- Bradycardia
CNS- Depression and coma, decreased respiratory rate
Is there lethality with nicotine toxicity?
yes, due to repiratory failure and/or cardiac arrest
What is the treatment for nicotine toxicity?
if dermal- wash, if oral-gastric lavage, also administer artificial respiration and stimulants such as caffeine