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84 Cards in this Set

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What is the most quantitative estimates of health detriments for humans and animals
Ionizing radiation
Data on human health effects are provided by these three types of radiation:
1.) External X radiation
2.) External gamma radiation
3.) Internal alpha radioactivity
Definition: photons or particles with enough energy to remove electrons from atoms of air (gases)
Ionization radiation
Definition: Resulting atoms and separated electrons after particles with enough energy remove electrons from atoms
Ions
What are the different types of Ionizing Radiation?
Beta Particles
Alpha particles
Muons and other cosmic radiation
"Hard" x-rays
Gamma Radiation
What type of radiation are radium dial painters exposed to ?
radium
What type of radiation are atom bomb survivors exposed to?
radium
What type of radiation are Ankylosing spondylitis patients exposed to?
X-radiation
What type of radiation are tinea capitis patients exposed to?
X-radiation
What type of radiation are Uranium minders exposed to ?
radon and progeny radiation
how many studies of normal radon background have been conducted?
20
What are the the major health effects of Radiation?
-Cancer
-Some heart, digestive disease in bomb survivors only at high dose levels
Exten of radiation to global population from natural radiation and radioactivity appreciated only within the last ____ years
20
What is the largest source of radiation exposure in the United States
Radon
What are the 4 main types of radiation
Alpha particles
Beta particles
Gamma rays
X-rays
What are the 2 different types of decay?
Alpha decay and Beta decay
Alpha decay has how many protons and how many neutrons?
2 proteins and 2 neutrons
Beta decay has how many electrons?
1 electron
When does gamma radiation occur?
When the nucleus releases excess energy
When does x radiation occur?
Occurs when inner shell orbital electron is removed and rearrangement of atomic electrons
What type of energy is associated with Energy of radiation
Kinetic energy
How is the (E) Energy of radiation measured
1/2 mV2
How many megaelectron volts are alpha particles?
4-8 MeV
This type of particle travels near the speed of light and requires relativistic correction
Beta particles
What is the energy of Beta particles in energy of radiation
.511 MeV
How do you measure energy of radiation of Gamma and x radiation?
E=hv
These are two types of radiation are pure electromagnetic radiation
y (gamma) and x radiation
What is the formula for finding electromagnetic radiaton?
E=hv where h is plancks constant and v is the frequency of the radiation.
Each particular particle of this type is Monoenergetic
Alpha particles
Heavy charged particles with a 2+ charge and is 7300 times the mass of beta particles
Alpha particles
What is an alpha particles range in air?
.325 E^3/2
What is the range (tissue) for alpha particles?
1/1000 of range (air)
What is the range for ^226 Ra (air)
3.4 cm
What is the range (tissue) for ^226Ra
34 micrometers
what is the Alpha particle decay of 226Ra ?
1600 Years
ALPHA PARTICLE DECAY:
What is the percentage of 4.6 Mev Alpha Particles
5.5%
what is the alpha particle decay of 222Rn?
3.8 days
What percentage alpha particle decay in 4.8 Mev alpha particle?
94.5%
-Interference with retinol metabolism in early embryo
---Oxidation of retinol crucial to normal development
-Probably involve complex combination of maternal factors and biochemical/cellular effects in embryo
-Excess cell death in sensitive cell populations common
Cranial malfunctions and similar structural effects
how is timing defined in mechanisms of action of ethanol?
When the anterior part of embryo, including brain, just beginning to form
What is the dose-response for mechanisms of action of ethanol?
Full blown Fetal alcohol syndrom - born to alcoholic mothers
Other Fetal Alcohol syndrom- 3-4 oz of alcohol per day
How many incidence of Full-blown FAS born to alcoholic mothers ?
25 per 1000 ppl
These are the effects of lower exposure of this disease..
Isolated components of FAS
Milder neurological and behavioral disorders
Short-term memory deficits
Lower performance on standardized tests
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD)
This factor of FAS, is dose-related even if non-alcoholic mother
Birth Weight
For each oz of absolute ethanol per day during late pregnancy how much of a decrease in weight is there?
160 gram decrease
Prenatal alcohol exposure significantly associated with drinking problems at age _____, regardless of family history or other environmental factors
21
Prenatal exposure of high dosages of ethanol during 2nd half of pregnancy in rats, shortens life span of offspring by how many weeks in females? In males?
20 weeks in females
2.5-7 weeks in males
What is the leading cause of environmentally induced developmental disease and morbidity today?
Tobacco smoke
what percentage of pregnant women in the u.s. continue to smoke?
25%
Clear picture of effects:
Spontaneous abortions
Perinatal deaths
Increased risk of SIDS (1/3 deaths prevented if no smoke exposure)
Increased risk of learning, behavioral, and attention disorders, lower birth weight
Orofacial clefts
Increased risk xenobiotic metabolizing gene polymorphisms
Elevated risk of gastroschisis if mom has certain alleles
Epi studies
This is large lateral abdominal wall defect does not involve the umbilical cord
and is not covered by a membrane.Much of the
bowel, stomach, and liver are herniated outside the abdominal cavity.
Gastroschisis
Known neuroteratogen in animals
Alone, can produce many of adverse smoke exposure outcomes
Nicotine
This is a nicotine metabolite that leads to hypertonia
cotinine
This affects branching morphogenesis and maturation of the lung and leads to altered physiologic function
Perinatal exposure to tobacco smoke
Associated with many of effects caused by active maternal smoking
Environmental tobacco smoke
this drug is a plant alkaloid derived from coca and is a local anesthetic with vasoconstrictor properties
cocaine
During what time period was there more potent forms of cocaine available, leading to cocaine abuse?
1980's
What percentage of pregnancies at urban teaching hospitals had recent cocaine exposure?
45%
What percentage of pregnancies in suburban haspitals had recent cocaine exposure?
6%
What is one reason that fetal effects are complicated and contoversial?
because it is difficult to monitor human populations for adverse reproductive outcomes
What are the cofounding factors that make fetal effects complicated and controversial?
-concurrent use of tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs
-neurological and behaviorial changes difficult to identify and quantify
What are the reliably associated effects of cocaine?
-Microcephaly
-Abruptio placentae
-Premature labor and delivery
-SIDs
-Altered prosencephalic development
Neonatal neurologic syndrom of abnormal sleep
-Decreased birth weight
-Tremor
-Irritability
-Poor feeding
-Occasional seizures
Susceptibility depends on genotype of conceptus and interaction with adverse environmental factors. This is known as....
the first of wilson's general principles of teratology
Varies with developmental stage at time of exposure to adverse factor
Wilsons second principle of teratology
Agents' specific mechanisms initiate pathogenesis
Wilsons third principle of teratology
Access of adverse factors to developing tissues depends on nature of agent
Wilson's fourth
Four expressions of abnormal development are death, malformation, growth retardation, and function deficit
Wilsons fifth principle
Abnormal development expressions increase in frequency and degree as dosage increases from no effect to totally lethal
Wilsons 6th principle
Critical periods of sensitivity is based on ...
developmental stage of conceptus
Development is a _______
continuum
At how many weeks can a conceptus be termed a fetus
8 weeks
The growth of an eye is called _____
ophthalmia
If an eye does not grow to its full size and is smaller than it should be this is known as ________
microphthalmia
If an eye does not grow at all then it is called _______
anophthalmia
Maternal physiological conditions capable of adversely affecting development of organism include
-Maternal anemia
-Altered nutritional status
-Decreased uterine blood flow
-Altered organ function
-Toxemia
-Autoimmune states
-Diabetes
-Abnormal behavior
-Decreased milk quantity/ quality
-Electrolyte or acid-base disturbances
In regards to maternal mortality rate, how much higher in women of parity greater than or equal to 4 is this rate then of women in first pregnancy
6x
Predisposition of mother to respond to toxic insult is the definition of _______
susceptibility
Most ________ traverse placenta in some form
chemicals
The placenta can be a target for _______
toxicity
definition: exogenous agent that interferes with production, release, transport, metabolism, binding, action, or elimination of natural hormones responsible for maintenance of homeostasis and regulation of development processes
endocrine disruptor or endocrine disrupting chemicals
_______ play critical role in differentiation of many tissues
hormones
with endocrine disrupting chemicals, Developing organism is particularly vulnerable to....
-changes in timing or intensity of exposure to
-Chemicals with hormonal or antihormonal activity
What are some endocrine-disrupting chemicals?
pestiscides
plasticizers
surfactant
organometals
phytoestrogens
halogenated polyaromatic hydrocarbons
What is the most convincing evidence of toxicity?
Neurobehavioral changes, learning deficits in children