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14 Cards in this Set

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name the plant and toxin
Arrow Grass (Triglochin maritima)
Not really a grass at all, Arrow Grass is a member of the lily family. It's grass-like, and tends to grow in wet marshy soil. As you see in this picture, the seed-heads stick up above the grass-like basal leaves. It is a common plant, indigenous, and in some circumstances, can be high in cyanide. It can flourish in irrigated hay fields, and consequently may end up causing sudden death even in the winter. Though the cyanide levels are lower in the dry hay, this can still be a problem when consumed by cattle
name the plant and toxin
Depicted here are choke cherries, one of the classic indigenous plants containing cyanogenic glycosides. Shown are typical white flowers of P. virginiana, the most common species in the western US It has black ripe fruits. The pin cherry (Prunus serotina), is more prevalent in the Eastern States.
name the plant and toxin
Elderberry (Sambuccus canadensis) flowers and fruits
These plants are very common in the inter-mountain area, and in late summer, their ripe fruits are not poisonous to both humans and animals. The rest of the plant is poisonous, due to the presence of cyanogenic glycosides.
name the plant and toxin
Blue Flax (Linum lewisii)
Blue flax is an attractive wild flower. Its close relative (Linum perenne), introduced as an ornamental plant for gardens has often escaped and can become a noxious weed. In most cases, animals won't consume flax. However, byproducts from the linseed oil industry such as linseed cake that is fed to livestock can contain significant levels of cyanogenic glycosides unless it is appropriately treated in the oil extraction process.
name the plant and toxin
Johnson Grass (Sorghum halapense)
By far and away, the most important cyanogenic plant in North America, and possibly even in the world is the group of plants known as sorghums.

Johnson grass:

indigenous to the Southeastern U.S
considered a noxious weed
a very vigorous and coarse grass
spreads by underground root system
under drought or frost conditions takes on high levels of cyanogenic glycosides.
name the plant and toxin
Kochia weed (Kochia scoparia) - introduced from Asia, kochia weed is now widely spread throughout the southwest. kochia is an annual weed that comes up in the early spring and forms a lush carpet - high in nitrate in this rapidly growing phase. At this time, cattle often graze kochia as the only available forage, which can result in nitrate toxicity. the plant in various stages of growth. On the right, kochia is a red color in the fall. It is sometimes confused with tumble weed because the stems break off and are blown around like tumble weed. True tumble weed is Russian thistle, also a nitrate accumulator
name the plant and toxin
Lambs quarter , Lambs quarter and Sudan grass, as rapidly growing annuals, can accumulate nitrates
name the plant and toxin
Mountain Mahogany (Cercocarpus montanus)
Mountain mahogany is very common in the mountain areas, and is an indigenous shrub. Occasionally, cattle can be poisoned by browsing on this plant. Deer and elk also browse on mountain mahogany, but seem relatively impervious to the effects of its cyanogenic glycosides
name plant and toxin
Pin Cherry (Prunus serotina)
All plants in the Prunus family should be considered cyanide risks. Again, frosting, drought, or pruning (or breakage after a storm) increase chances for cyanide toxicity
name the plant and toxin
Poison Suckleya (Suckleya suckleyana)
In Colorado, southern Wyoming and western Kansas/Nebraska and northern New Mexico we have a plant that is unique to the area. It will grow in receding water edges, a prostrate plant possessing red stems and spade-like leaves with greenish flower clusters in the leaf axils
(cyanogenic)
name the plant and toxin
Red rooted pig weed (Amaranthus retroflexus) - can accumulate high levels of nitrates and oxalates. Oxalates however, are not usually associated with sudden death but cause chronic renal failure
name plant and toxin
Russian Thistle (Salsola kali) a nitrate accumulator.
tumble weed
name the plant and toxin
Service berry (Amelanchier alnifolia) flowers and fruits
These plants are very common in the inter-mountain area, and in late summer, their ripe fruits are not poisonous to both humans and animals. The rest of the plant is also poisonous, due to the presence of cyanogenic glycosides.
name the plant and toxin
Sudan grass
group of sorghums notorious for cyanide poisoning are Sudan grass and its hybrids. Sudan grass (Sorghum sudanensis) Also accumluate nitrates