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30 Cards in this Set

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Who were the main candidates for succeeding Lenin?
Josef Stalin and Leon Trotsky
What stances did Stalin and Trotsky take on the NEP?
Trotsky wanted to end it and get back to communism, and Stalin wanted to continue it simply to oppose Trotsky.
How was Stalin able to assume power, rather than Trotsky?
He had appointed most of the government officials, so they would vote for him. Also, Zinoviev, Kamenev, and Preobrazhensky supported Stalin over Trotsky.
Why did Zinoviev, Kamenev, and Preobrazhensky support Stalin?
They thought they could control him.
What happened to Trotsky after Stalin came to power?
1925 he was fired from war commissar, 1927 expelled from the Communist party, 1928 expelled from Russia, and 1940 killed in Mexico by Stalin's secret police, who used an icepick.
What is the era from 1928 to 1932 in Russia called?
Stalin's First Five-Year Plan
What sort of economy did Stalin introduce?
a command economy: Gosplan determines what everyone produces, how much of it, and what prices and wages to set.
How was Stalin's purging different from Lenin's purging?
Stalin arrested and tortured his opponents into confessing in a public trial, sometimes even televising these confessions, to remove any traces of martyrdom.
What did Stalin do to agriculture during the first Five-Year Plan?
He collectivized, grouping farmers together on huge farms, introducing machinery, needing fewer people.
What happened to the extra farmers who couldn't work on the collectivized farms?
They were brought to the city and became industrial workers.
When did Stalin collectivize agriculture?
He started in 1929-30, then stopped in 1930-1, starting up again in 1931-2.
What was the result of the collectivization of agriculture by Stalin?
a famine, from 1931-4, involving 5-6 million deaths, mostly in the Ukraine
What were the large, collectivized farms called?
Kolhoz
How did Stalin tax his farmers?
He levied a grain tax, and took it even if it left the farmers with nothing to eat.
What did Stalin use the grain tax for?
trading with other countries for machinery to conduct rapid industrialization
By what factor did the USSR's electricity output increase during the first Five-Year Plan?
2.7
By what factor did the USSR's coal output increase during the first Five-Year Plan?
1.8
By what factor did the USSR's steel output increase during the first Five-Year Plan?
1.5
By what factor did the USSR's electricity output increase during the second Five-Year Plan?
2.7
By what factor did the USSR's coal output increase during the second Five-Year Plan?
2.0
By what factor did the USSR's steel output increase during the second Five-Year Plan?
3.0
Why did the first Five-Year Plan end early?
Stalin declared that its goals had been accomplished early.
Who was purged in 1935?
Zinoviev, Kamensky, and Preobrazhensky
What were the mock trials where opponents confessed called?
Purge Trials, and Show Trials if they were televised
What did Stalin do to Lenin's Central Communist Committee?
He executed 70% of them by 1936.
Who was purged in 1937?
the military: 60% of the generals and most of the admirals
Where could one have found images of Stalin's personality cult?
statues, posters, pictures, artwork, history books, and children's books (as Uncle Joe)
Who received the personality cult along with Stalin?
Lenin, to make it seem like Stalin is his heir
What did Stalin do to increase his reputation?
He stole others' accomplishments, purged them, and claimed the deeds as his own.
What are two examples of how big Stalin's personality cult became?
A Russian mother said, "My children love Stalin most of all, me only second." and he renamed the city of Volgograd to Stalingrad.