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47 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
When did China lose its series of emperor dynasties?
A 1911 revolt led to the emperor abdicating in 1912.
What group and person took power when the emperor abdicated?
the Kuomintang (or Guomindang or KMT), led by Sun Yat-Sen
What was the name of the communist party in China?
the Chinese Communist Party or CCP
What happened in 1923?
The KMT and CCP allied, but remained apart
Who was Sun Yat-sen's successor and when?
Chiang Kai-Shek (Jiang Jie-Shi) took over when Sun Yat-sen died in 1925
What did Chiang do to the communists?
In 1926, he cut ties to the USSR and in 1927 he attacked the CCP.
What happened in 1931?
Japan invaded Manchuria, but Chiang continued to attack the CCP, ignoring the Japanese.
What class was Mao born into?
the middle class farmers
What did Mao do in his younger years?
He escaped his father's farm and studied to be a teacher, joining the revolution as a Marxist.
What did Mao do when Chiang came to power?
He fled to the mountains of Jian-xi and began building an army.
How did Chiang respond to Mao's army?
After it became important, Chiang attacked, outnumbering Mao.
What did Mao do when Chiang attacked?
He retreated repeatedly, in what became known as the Long March, to Shaanxi.
What made Mao popular initially?
He was simple, and not foreign-educated.
What happened to prevent Chiang from persuing Mao in Shaanxi?
Japan attacked, as a part of World War II.
What happened during World War II between Chiang and Mao?
They formed an alliance, and the US ended up giving Mao a whole ton of weapons and experience, which he used against Chiang.
When was the People's Republic of China (PRC) formed?
What was one of the first foreign policy acts of Mao?
He visited the USSR (his first time out of China), hoping to get support, but Stalin wasn't really interested in China.
What happened in the Hundred Flowers Campaign?
Mao let the intellectuals voice their views, but then labeled some of his harshest critics as "Rightists," punishing them.
What happened in 1958?
Mao went on a tour of China, and was moved by how many people China had.
What was Mao's most important shift in ideology from Marxism?
He focused on the peasants, not the proletariat.
Where did Chiang Kai-shek go after Mao defeated him?
Formosa/Taiwan/Taipei (the capital)/the Republic of China, which was recognized as "China" in the UN until 1972.
What are four reasons Mao was able to defeat the KMT?
Mao had gotten help from the US to fight the Japanese, he was a great guerilla warrior, the KMT was corrupt, and Mao had the ability to relate to the peasants.
What is the difference between redistribution and collectivization?
They're opposites: Redistribution breaks the land into smaller sections, and collectivization combines it all together.
What did Mao do to landowners and other bourgeois elements?
He took the land of anyone who either paid workers or charged rent, then either jailed, shot, or exiled them.
How did the PRC gather all businesses to itself?
They simply nationalized businesses, undercut them by selling low, or jailed the owners of competitors.
How much of China became under governmental control?
By 1953, 86% of Chinese business was under governmental control.
What was the era from 1953 to 1958 in China called?
China's first Five-Year Plan
How much money did the USSR give the PRC during its first Five-Year Plan?
$300 million
By what factors did electricity, coal, and steel production go up during China's first Five-Year Plan?
3, 3, and 5, respectively
How fast did the Chinese economy (GNP/capita) grow during its first Five-Year Plan?
15% per year
When was the Hundred Flowers Campaign?
How did Mao purge people?
He either jailed them, shot them, or re-educated them by giving them value-teaching classes and making them work in the fields.
What are the two interpretations of the Hundred Flowers Campaign?
1) Mao was shocked by the amount of criticism he received, and only later decided to purge the rightists. 2) Mao planned the Hundred Flowers Campaign to find his opponents and purge them.
What did Mao do regarding agriculture?
In 1950 he issued the Agrarian Reform Law, which redistributed land, but in 1956 he collectivized it.
What is the difference between the proletariat and the peasants?
Proletariat are industrial workers, and peasants are farmers.
What was the era from 1958 to 1961 in China called?
China's second Five-Year Plan, or the Great Leap Forward
What brought about the famine of 1959 to 1961 in China?
Mao focused on home steel production, telling his officials to do so; they tell the farmers to make steel and no one farms anymore. A 1960-1 drought didn't help.
How many people died in the 1959-1961 Chinese famine?
20 to 40 million (entire villages lost, so numbers are approximate)
Why did the Great Leap Forward end in 1961?
Due to the famine, Mao was pushed to the side, and his plan was disbanded.
What did the people who pushed Mao to the side do economically?
Peasants were allowed to farm small plots of land and sell excess crops for profit, and the price of food was allowed to go up so some would be left over for the farmers.
How did Mao return to power?
He introduced the Cultural Revolution in 1966, targeting college students.
Who were the Red Guard?
Mao's college-aged students who led the Cultural Revolution
What was the Little Red Book?
a book of Mao's various sayings, part of the Cultural Revolution
When and how did the Cultural Revolution end?
In 1970, Mao declared the Cultural Revolution over, and sent the Red Guards home.
When did Mao die?
Who was Mao's successor?
Deng Xiaoping
What did Deng do to China?
He introduced capitalist reforms, undoing much of Mao's actions.