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46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
How did Lenin view the Great War (World War I)?
as an opportunity for a revolution
In what manner did Russia enter the War?
patriotically, with the czar leading the troops
How was the czar overthrown?
Due to economic and military difficulties, a mob stormed Petrograd and seized power. The czar abdicated.
Who took over after the czar abdicated?
First Prince Lvov, and later Alexander Kerensky, led a provisional government.
How did the Soviets treat Kerensky and the provisional government?
"with complete mistrust", per Lenin's orders
How did Lenin view the mob overthrow of the czar?
He was disappointed that he was unable to be there.
How did Lenin return to Russia, and how did that affect his campaign?
The Germans paid for a train to send Lenin back to Russia because he wanted to end the war with Germany, but this made Lenin appear a tool of the Germans. The provisional government labeled him a spy.
What did the Kerensky government do about the war?
They kept on fighting.
How did Lenin escape the Kerensky government?
He shaved his distinctive beard and fled to Finland.
What was Kerensky's major error?
When General Kornilov threatened to attack the capital following a misunderstanding of directions, Kerensky armed the Bolsheviks to defend himself, paving the way for the October Revolution.
How did Lenin return to Russia (the second time)?
He snuck back, ordered a coup overnight, and the Soviets declared him the new ruler.
What did Lenin first do while in power?
He pulled out of the war and reversed the February Revolution, turning Russia into a communist state.
What happened after the assassination attempt on Lenin?
He executed over 500 of his opponents in revenge.
How many people mourned Lenin at his funeral, and how many have gone to see his enbalmed body?
750k; 100M
What are the two deviations Leninism takes from Marxism?
The industrial stage was skipped (Russia was still agricultural), and Lenin introduced the idea of Democratic Centralism, in which a small elite lead the revolution and govern the country on the behalf of the proletariat.
What group was Lenin a part of originally?
the Russian Social Democrats, in the Leninist faction (duh)
What did the Leninist faction believe?
Russia was ready for a revolution, Democratic Centralism works, all enemies should be purged, and they should not cooperate with other anti-czar factions.
What did the non-Leninist faction believe?
Russia was getting closer to a communist revolution, but was not there yet, a broad group of people should lead the revolution, core principles should be followed, and cooperation with other groups is allowed.
Where did the Bolsheviks get their name?
At a meeting in Brussels, the non-Leninists walked out, so the Leninists took a vote and declared themselves the Bolsheviks (the majority), labelling the non-Leninists the Mensheviks (the minority).
How did the Leninists use the Bolshevik/Menshevik division to their advantage?
Bolsheviks really weren't the majority, but by phrasing it that way, they were made to seem bigger than they were.
What are two examples of Russia's devastation during the Great War?
Inflation went up 5X (400%) while wages remained similar, and lots of people died (2 million in 1916 alone!).
Who was blamed for the troubles during the Great War?
Tsarina Alexandra, who was a German
What did the February Revolution consist of?
Bread riots led a mob to overthrow the government, and establish a provisional government led by the Mensheviks, Republicans, and pro-Army factions.
Why did the February Revolution happen in March, and the October Revolution in November?
Russia was still on the Julian calendar, while the rest of the world had switched over to the Gregorian calendar in the 18th Century, so there was around a month's difference between the two.
When did Russia switch to the Gregorian calendar?
early 1918, under Lenin
What did Lenin do to consolidate power?
He allowed elections to take place and elect a constituent assembly, the members of which he then captured and executed.
When did the Bolsheviks rename themselves the Communists?
January 1918
What did the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk do?
In it, Lenin gave up Finland, Poland, Ukraine, Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia as independent nations as a consequence for losing World War One.
What was sovnarkom?
a time period in late 1917 in which an interim government ruled Russia
What is the era from 1918 to 1921 in Russia called?
War Communism
What two groups did the Communists oppose during War Communism?
the Whites (Proventialists, Mensheviks, Republicans, and pro-army factions) and the Foreign Powers (US, UK, and Japan)
What are two reasons why the Communists were able to defeat their enemies during War Communism?
They are united, while their enemies are not, and they have Leon Trotsky as a military leader, a parallel of George Washington.
As Lenin's health declined, who appeared to be his successor and why was that wrong?
Trotsky appeared to be in line to inherit the government, as he was popular, a good speaker, and a hero, but Stalin had appointed his friends to government posts, so he had more support from those in power.
What did Lenin do economically during War Communism?
He abolished private trade (1918), distributing excess food to city dwellers, and nationalized factories and businesses with more than 5 employees.
When was War Communism?
What happened to the Russian economy during War Communism?
It stayed in its nosedive: In 1922, coal was at 27% and crop harvest at 60% of levels in 1913.
Why did Lenin's War Communism economy tank?
loss of incentives, territory and life, and pillaging of the countryside during war
Who ran the Russian economy during War Communism?
the Supreme Council of the National Economy (VSNKh)
What did the VSNKh do?
centralized transportation and food
Name the four Russian secret police organizations and the years they began in.
Cheka 1917
OGPU 1923
NKVD 1934
KGB 1954
When was the NEP carried out?
What is the era from 1921 to 1924 in Russia called?
Lenin's New Economic Policy (NEP)
What did the NEP consist of?
Private trade was re-legalized, allowing peasants to sell surpluses and some factories were re-privatized.
What effects did the NEP have and not have?
It didn't avert the 1921-2 famine or industrialize Russia, but it did increase the grain harvest by around 50%.
How and when did Russia become the USSR?
In 1922, Ukraine and Georgia returned to Russia, and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was proclaimed (it's also the CCCP in Russian).
When did Lenin die?