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35 Cards in this Set

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What is biotechnology?
The use of microorganisms, cells, or cell components to make a product
What is genetic engineering?
Transferring genes amongst unrelated species
What is rDNA?
"Recombinant DNA" - DNA that has been artificially manipulated to combine genes from 2 different sources
What are 2 different types of vectors?
Plasmid or Virus
What is a vector?
An area where a desired gene is placed such as a plasmid or virus
What is a clone pertaining to rDNA technology?
A cell that contains the desired gene and is replicated.
What does artificial selection mean?
To select desirable breeds of animals or strains of plants to cultivate
True or false:

Mutagens are used to cause mutations that might result in a microbe with desirable traits
True
What method is used to change a specific codon in a gen?
Site-directed mutagenesis
What enzyme is used to cut one particular nucleotide sequence in DNA?
Restriction enzyme
What does restriction enzymes produce when it cuts the DNA?
Sticky ends
What is used to covalently link the DNA backbones together after a restriction enzyme is used to cut the DNA?
DNA ligases
What are shuttle vectors?
Plasmids that can exist in several different species
True or false:

A plasmid containing a new gene can be inserted into a cell by transformation
True

What is transformation?

When a cell dies, it leaves its DNA and can be picked up by another cell.
What does PCR stand for and what does it do?
Polymerase chain reaction - used to make multiple copies of a desired piece of DNA enzymatically
At times, some cells cannot take up DNA through transformation. What is done so that it can?
Chemical treatments
What is the process of creating pores by an electric current so that it can provide an entrance for new pieces of DNA?
Electroporation
What is protoplast fusion?
Joining of cells whose cell walls have been removed
What can be used to shoot foreign DNA into plant cells?
Gene gun
What is a microinjection?
Fine glass micropipette used to inject foreign DNA into cells
What are gene libraries?
Storing desired genes into a bacterial plasmid or phage
How are cDNA formed?
Through reverse transcription
What is reverse transcription?
Obtaining a mRNA and synthesizing DNA
What is used to make synthetic DNA in vitro?
Gene machine
How are cells identified containing the engineered vector by direct selection?
Antibiotic-resistance markers aka reporter genes
What are gene probes?
Single stranded segmented DNA that are complementary with the desired gene and is used to find the desired gene within a colony.
What are cloned DNA used for?
Produce protein products, studying of the cloned gene, and ultimately alter the phenotype of an organism
True or false:

Bacteria can produce and secrete human insulin and growth hormones through genetic engineering
True
What is gene therapy?
Cure genetic diseases by repairing the defective or missing gene.
What is used in crop plants to resist insects?
Bt or Bacillus thuringiensis toxin

"BT Corn"
What are Rhizobium enhanced to do?
Nitrogen fixation
What is nitrogen fixation?
Ability to convert nitrogen gas to compounds that living cells can use.
What bacteria produces the bovine growth hormone?
E. coli
What is the bovine growth hormone do?
Increase milk production in milk cows and weight in beef cows
How can scientist control genetically engineered mircroorganisms from surviving after its' released purpose or from persisting in the environment?
By engineering a suicide gene within the cell