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72 Cards in this Set

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What is Metabolism?
Metabolism is all of the chemical reactions within a living organism
What is Catabolism?
It is the breakdown of complex organic molecules into simpler compounds
Does Catabolism release or require energy and is it an exergonic reaction or endergonic reaction?
Releases - Exergonic
Does Anabolism release or require energy and is it an exergonic reaction or energonic reaction?
Requires - Endergonic
What is Anabolism
It is the building of complex organic molecules from simpler ones
What's the difference between endergonic & exergonic reaction?
Endergonic - Requires energy

Exergonic - Releases energy
What is an enzyme and how can they be distinguished in letter format?
Catalysts that speed up and direct chemical reactions; words usually end with "ase" to distinguish enzymes
Explain enzyme specificity and what is this theory called?
Enzyme + Substrate -->
EnzymeSubstrate (combined) -->
Enzyme + Product

Lock and Key Theory
What are the enzyme components? (2 part question)
Apoenzyme
Coenzyme
Holoenzyme

Explain each...
Apoenzyme - Enzyme without any added coenzyme

Coenzyme - Nonprotein that enhances an enzyme

Holoenzyme - Apoenzyme combined with the coenzyme
Coenzymes are mostly derived from what (2 part question)?
Vitamins

Give some examples
Niacin (NAD)
Riboflavin (FAD)
Pantothenic Acid (CoEnzymeA)
What are 3 factors that influence enzymatic activity?
Temperature
pH
Substrate concentration
What are 2 inhibitors that can affect enzymatic activity (2 part question)?
Competitive Inhibitors
Noncompetitive Inhibitors

Explain each...
Competitive - Inhibitor that binds into active site and blocks substrate from entering

Non-competitive - Inhibitor in which it enters the allosteric site and alters the active site, which then blocks the substrate from entering
What is the allosteric site?
Enzyme site which binds to molecules other than the substrate; thereby regulating enzyme activity
Explain Feedback Inhibition
Occurs when the end product of a metabolic pathway inhibits an enzymes activity early in the pathway

End product of original substrate becomes an inhibitor of an enzyme that stops the original production
What is oxidation?
Loss of hydrogen and/or electrons
What is Reduction?
Gain of hydrogen and/or electrons
What is the concept behind oxidation-reduction reactions aka Redox reactions?
When a substance is oxidized, another is simultaneously reduced; coupled reaction
NAD+ is oxidized or reduced?
Oxidized; ready to accept ions
NADH is oxidized or reduced?
Reduced; gained an ion
What is phosphorylation?
Addition of phosphate to a molecule
What is oxidative phosphorylation?
When electrons are passed through a series of steps, from different electron accpetors, to reach O2 (aerobic) or other inorganic compounds (anaerobic); ATP is generated during this process.
What is photophosphorylation?
When light energy is trapped by chlorophyll and electrons are passed through a series of electron acceptors; energy released synthesizes ATP
What is the primary source of energy for microorganisms?
Carbohydrates
What are the 2 pathways of glycolysis?
Respiration (aerobic)
Fermentation (anaerobic)
Is glucose partially or completely broken down during Fermentation? ...Respiration?
Fermentation - partially
Respiration - completely
Cellular respiration consists of which 2 compounds and give an example of each?
Organic - Glucose

Inorganic - Nitrate
What type of respiration is this:

C6H12O6 + 6 O2 -> 6CO2 + 6 H2O + 38 ATP
Aerobic respiration
How much ATP is generated is aerobic respiration?
38 ATP
In aerobic respiration, glucose forms with what and produces what 3 primary molecules?
Glucose + Oxygen -> Carbon dioxide + water + ATP
What is glycolysis?
The splitting of sugar
What is the end products of glycolysis?
2 Pyruvic acid
2 NADH2
2 ATP
During fermentation, what 2 things can pyruvic acid be converted to?
Lactic acid
Alcohol (ethanol)
What are 2 alternative pathways to glycolysis?
Pentose phosphate pathway
Entner-Duodoroff pathway
In the ETS system, what are electrons brought from?
What - NAD+ & FAD+
What are the different carriers within the ETS system?
Flavoproteins
Cytochromes
Ubiquinones
Where are electron carriers located in eukaryotes?
Mitochoncrial membrane
Where are electron carriers located in prokaryotes?
Plasma membrane
How much ATP is formed during Glycolysis?
2
How much ATP is formed during Krebs Cycle?
2
How much ATP is formed during ETS?
34
How many NADH & FADH are within the ETS?
NADH - 10
FADH - 2
How much ATP is generated in aerobic (non-eukaryotic) respiration?
38
How much ATP is generated in eukaryotic aerobic respiration?
36
Name 3 inorganic compounds used in anaerobic respiration and what are they reduced to?
NO3 to NO2
SO4 to H2S
CO3 to CH4
Which grow faster, anaerobes or aerobes and which of them produce more ATP?
Aerobes grow faster; thus creating more ATP
What is fermentation?
Release of energy from sugars or other organic molecules by oxidation.
What is the final electron acceptor in fermentation?
Organic molecule
Explain lactic acid fermentation.
When a homofermentative lactic acid bacteria reduces (addition of H+ from NADH) pyruvic acid to form lactic acid.
Explain alcohol fermentation.
When yeast reduces (addition of H+ from NADH) acetaldehyde to produce ethanol.
What does it mean to be a heterolactic acid bacteria?
A bacteria that can produce a mixed fermentative end product by utilizing the pentose phosphate pathway.
What is beta oxidation?
The breakdown of Acyl CoA molecules (lipid catabolic products) in the mitochondria to generate Acetyl-CoA
What enzyme is used to hydrolyze/breakdown lipids?
Lipases
What are 3 reactions used in protein catabolism and explain each?
Transamination - Transfer of amino group from one molecule to another

Decarboxylation - Removal of carboxyl group

Dehydrogentation - Removal of a hydrogen
What is photosynthesis?
Conversion of solar energy into chemical energy.
What is carbon fixation?
CO2 is converted into organic compounds like sugar (C6H12O6)
What is the reason behind photosynthesis?
The energy is utilized for carbon fixation.
Which 3 living things use photosynthesis?
Green plants
Algae
Cyanobacteria
What is the waste product of photosynthesis?
Oxygen
Photosynthesis consists of what 2 reactions?
Light & Dark
What happens in the "light reaction" of photosynthesis?
Electrons from chlorphyll pass through an ETS system (found within the thylakoid of the chloroplast), in which ATP is produced.
What is produced with the oxidation of H2O?
O2 (oxygen)
What happens in the "dark reaction" of photosynthesis?
Carbon fixation - CO2 is synthesized/converted into sugar
What does "chemo" mean?
Chemical
What does "auto" mean?
Self
What does "hetero" mean?
Other
What does "troph" mean?
Nourishment
What does "photo" mean?
Light
Autotrophs use what type of carbon?
Inorganic
Heterotrophs use what type of carbon?
Organic
Whats the difference between Chemoautotrophs and chemoheterotrophs?
Chemoautotrophs obtain energy from inorganic compounds

Chemoheterotrophs obtain energy from organic compounds
Chemotrophs obtain energy from what?
Inorganic or organic chemical reactions
Autotrophs obtain energy from what?
Light