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34 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is taxonomy?
The science of the classification of organisms and showing relationships among organisms.
Taxonomy provides a means of of what?
Identifying organisms
What is Phylogeny the study of?
Phylogeny aka "systematics" is the study of the evolutionary history of organisms.
What are the 3 domains?
Living organisms were divided into how many kingdoms in 1969?
Bacteria were separated into what kingdom in 1968>
Organisms were grouped into what?
Taxa (degree of similarities)

Example: From common ancestor
How are eukaryotes grouped into taxa?
How are prokaryotes grouped into taxa?
rRNA sequencing
Pertaining to scientific nomenclature, what does a "binomial" consist of?
Genus and species
Which organization assigns names to bacteria (FYI)?
International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology
Which organization publishes rules for naming fungi and algae (FYI)?
International Code of Botanical Nomenclature
Which organization publishes rules for naming protozoa (FYI)?
International Code of Zoological Nomenclature
True or False:

Eukaryotic species is a group of organisms that interbreeds and breeds with individuals of another species.
Eukaryotics species do interbreed BUT DOES NOT BREED with individuals of ANOTHER species.

Example: Humans do not breed with animals
What is used for the standard reference on bacterial classification?
Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology
What is a strain?
Bacteria derived from a single cell
What is a domain?
A group of closely related kingdoms.
What constitutes bacterial species?
Closely related strains (strain is bacteria derived from a single cell).
What kingdom are viruses under?
Not placed in any kingdom

2 reasons why:

1. They are not composed of cells
2. Cannot grow without a host cell.
How are viral species differentiated?
Population with similar characteristics depending on their ecological niche (how an organism makes a living)
What are serological tests?
A method of classifying and identifying microbes by observing their reactions with specific antibodies.
Serological tests identify what specifically?
Strains and species
What is phage typing?
A method of classifying and identifying microbes by determining susceptibility of bacteria to various phages (a cell or bacteria that attack or engulf [kill] bacteria)
Besides the basic identification/classification (physical, enzymatic, and chemical activities) of microbes, name 8 other methods.
1. Serological tests
2. Phage typing
3. Fatty acid profiles
4. G+C profiles (high/low)
5. rRNA sequencing
6. DNA fingerprinting - Number & size of DNA fragments (produced from restriction enzymes)
7. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
8. Nucleic acid hybridization
What occurs in DNA fingerprinting?
1. Restriction enzymes break apart DNA strand
2. Broken DNA strand is put on the negative end of electrophoresis
3. Electrophoresis pulls strands from a negative to a positive end
4. Identification of DNA will show with bars scattered throughout gel
During electrophoresis, what 2 things determine the distance a DNA piece will travel from a negative start to a positive end?
Size & electrical charge
What is PCR?
"Polymerase chain reaction" - Techniquie by which small samples of DNA can be quickly amplified, that is, increased to quantities that are large enough for analysis

Breakdown: Mass producing DNA strand copies by the use of PCR (PCR is like a DNA polymerase)
What is Nucleic acid hybridization?
A way of relating 2 microbes by combining their DNA strands; the closer hybridization of the 2 DNA strands to each other, the closer relation.


1. Take DNA strand from both microbes
2. Utilization of heat to break apart the DNA strands
3. Combine strand from microbe 1 and strand from microbe 2
4. Observe; more hybridization = closer relation
True or False:

During nucleic acid hybridization, DNA strands can pair/combine with a RNA strand to see hybridization.
True - Hybridization can occur with DNA to DNA, RNA to RNA, and DNA to RNA
What is a gene probe and what is it used for?
Short single stranded DNA with a specific base sequence used for hybridization

Example: Unknown microbe DNA; scientist have a salmonella gene probe (DNA strand) and is used to pair with the unknown. If both the strands compliment each other OBVIOUSLY it is salmonella or is somewhat a close relative.
What are 4 types of blotting?
Southern blotting (memorize)
Western blotting (FYI)
Southern blotting (FYI)
Norther blotting (FYI)
What is southern blotting?
A type of DNA hybridization used to identify unknown microbes
What is a technique used for nucleic acid hybridization?
Southern blotting
What are the steps to southern blotting?
Purpose: To identify unknown microbe

1. DNA strands are cut into pieces with restriction enzymes

2. Electrophoresis is used to separate the strands of DNA (DNA fingerprinting)

3. A filter made of nitrocellulose is "blotted" onto the gel

4. DNA strands/bands are transferred onto the filter

5. Filter is exposed to radioactive gene probes (single DNA strand with a specific gene sequence)

6. Filter is exposed to X-ray film and if gene probe compliments a DNA strand, it will show up on the X-ray film

**Gene probes are known DNA; if gene probe is Salmonella stand and it matches with unknown, then most likely salmonella