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45 Cards in this Set

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why learn pharmacodynamics?
educate patients, make prn decisions, evaluate pt. for drug responses, both beneficial and harmful, conferring w/ physicians
What is defined as the study of the biochemical and physiologic effects of drugs and the molecular mechanisms by which those effects are produced.
Pharmodynamics
what determines the minimum amount of drug we can use, the maximum response a drug can elicit, and how much we need to increase the dosage to produce the desired increase in response
dose response relationship
another term for the relationship between the size of an administered dose and the intensity of the response produced.
dose response relationship
what are the two characteristic properties of drugs
maxiaml efficacy and relative potency
what is defined as the largest effect that a drug can produce
maximal efficacy
what is indicated by the height of the dose response curve
maximal efficacy
what term refers to the amount of drug we must give to elicit an effect
potency
what is indicated by the relative position of the dose response curve along the x (dose) axis
potency
True or False
potency of a drug implies nothing about its maximal efficacy.
true
potency and efficacy are completely independent qualities
what are the special chemicals in the body that most drugs interact with to produce effects
receptors
what is the formal definition of any functional macromolecule in a cell to which a drug binds to produce its effects
receptor
what is generally reserved for what is arguably the most important group of macromolecules through which drugs act: the body's own receptors for hormones, neurotransmitter, adn other regulatory molecules.
the term receptor
what are normal points of physiologic processes
receptors
it is regulated by molecules supplied by the body
receptor function
what can drugs do at receptors
they mimic or block the action of the body's own regulatory molecules
drugs can or cannot give cells new functions
cannot drugs cannot make the body do anything that it is not already capable fo doing
what helps the body help itself
medications
what makes selective drug action possible
by the existence of many types fo receptors, each regulating just a few processes.
even though a drug is selective for only one type of receptor, is it possible fro that drug to produce nonselective effects?
yes, if a single receptor type is responsibele for regulating several physiologic processes, then drugs that interact with that receptor will also influence a variety of processes.
does selectivity guarantee safety
no a compound can be highly selecive for one particular receptor and still be dangerous
Two theories of drug receptro interaction
simple occupancy theory and the modified occupancy theory
what do the theories of drug receptor interaction help explain
explain dose-response relationships and the ability of drugs to mimic or block the actions of endogenous regulatory molecules
what states the intensity of the response to a drug is proportional to the number of receptors occupied by that drug and that a maximal response will occur when all available receptors have been occupied
simple occupancy theory
according to this theory two drugs acting at the same receptor should produce the same maximal effect, providing that their dosages were high enough to produce 100% receptor occupancy
simple occupancy theory
what ascribes two qualities to drugs: affinity and intrinsic activity
the modified theory
what refers to the strenght of the attraction between a drug and its receptor.
affinity
the affinity of a drug for its receptors is reflected in its
potency
drugs with high affinity are
very potent
this term refers to the ability of a drug to activate a receptor upon binding.
intrinsic activity
the intrinsic activity of a drug is reflected in its
maximal efficacy.
drugs with high intrinsic activity have high
maximal efficacy.
that is by causing intense receptor activation, they are able to cause intense respnses, conversly if intrinsic activity is low, maximal efficacy will be low as well
are molecules taht activate receptors
agonists
because neurotransmitters, hormones, and all other endogenous regulators of receptor function activate the receptors to which they bind all of these compounds are considered
agonists
affinity allows the agonist to bind to receptors, while intrinsic activity allows the bound agonist to
activate or turn on receptor function
many therapeutic agents produce their effects by functioning as
agonists
what is an agonist that has only moderate intrinsic activity
partial agonists
what can act as an agonist as well as an antagonists
partial agonists
antagonists produce their effects by
preventing the activation of receptors by agonists
in terms fo the modified occupancy theory, an agonist is a drug that has both
affinity and high intrinsic activity.
when drugs bind to receptors they can do one of two things
they can either mimic the action of endogenous regulatory molecules or they can block the action of endogenous regulatory molecules
drugs that mimic the body's own regulatory molecues are called
agonists
drugs that block the actions of endogenous regulators are called
antagonists
mimic the actions of endogenous regulatory molecules, but they produce responses of intermediate intensity
partial agonists
how would you describe the action of rosiglitazone??
it binds to a receptor to elicit a desired response, it binds to a receptor to prevent action fo another substance, it dislodges another substance from a receptor site