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52 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are 8 layers of the retina?
1- internal limiting membrane
2- NFl
3-inner plexiform
4- inner nuclear
5-outer plexiform
6- outer nuclear
7- photoreceptors
8- RPE
Name 4 places a hemorrhage can occur.
1- vitreous
2- pre-retinal
3- intraretinal
4- subretinal
A hemorrhage located in the inner/ superficial retina is ________ in shape.
flame (it follows the shape of the NFL)
A hemorrhage located in the outer retina is _____ in shape.
dot or blot
Most subretinal hemes are secondary to ________.
Choroidal neovascular membranes (very bad)
Dot hemes are caused by ______.
leaky vessels
Subretinal hemes are ________ in color.
slate gray
A cotton wool spot indicates an ___________ has occured. The _____ is the layer of he retina that is effected.
ischemic event, NFL
______ indicate leaky vessels and some degree of intraretinal fluid. These look waxy.
hard exudates
A ______ indicates damage to the RPE.
Drusens are associated with ____.
dry ARMD
Describe the location for the following conditions:
1- Cotton wool spot = _____
2- Hard exudates = _____
3- drusens = _______
1- inner retina/NFL
2- outer retina
3- between RPE and Bruchs (deep to the retinal vessels)
Can you get a PVD after caract surgery?
What are 2 symptoms with a PVD?
floaters and photopsia
Where are the weak vitreous attachments in the retina?
around the macula and superficial retinal vessels.
What happens in 30% of PVD and what is THE sign that this has occured?
retinal breaks, Shafer's sign
What is shafer's sign?
pigment or RBC floating around in the anterior vitreous.
What is a classic finding of a PVD?
Weiss ring
In Asteroid Hyalosis, is it 90% unilateral?
Ca++ soaps in the vitreous is termed _________.
Asteroid Hyalosis
What are 3 associated factors with asteroid hyalosis?
DM, HTN, and atherosclerotic vascular disease
What is a CHRPE? and what color is it?
Congenital hypertrophy of the Retinal Pigment Epithelium

brown/dark gray/ black (in other words: DARK!)
CHRPE aka ___________.

Why is this not accurate?
halo nevus
it is NOT a nevus!
CHRPE have ______ within the lesion.
Are CHRPE flat or raised? and are they well-demarcated or diffuse?
FLAT and well- demarcated
What are 3 forms of CHRPE?
1- typical unilateral unifocal
2- typical unilateral multifocal (bear tracks)
3- atypical bilateral multifocal
If you see atypical bilateral multifocal CHRPE what extra precaution should you take? Why?
refer them to a gastroenterologist
b/c they have a 10% chance of getting colon cancer (associated with familial ademomatous polyposis)
Can a CHRPE affect vision? In what state of condition is the overlying retina?
yes--it oculd cause a scotoma growing more absolute with time

-overlying retina is healthy but it could have an epiretinal membrane
Most CHRPE are ______. (benign vs malignant)
If you see a long, depigmented flat area in the inferotemporal quadrant of the retina-- and it is surrounded by RPE hyperplasia-- you can say it is _________.
Pavingstone chorioretinal atrophy
aka: cobblestone
Does pavingstone chorioretinal atrophy lead to a predisposition for retianl breaks or detachments?
No (counter intuitive)
Describe 4 characteristics of Peripheral Senile pigmentary degeneration.
1- circumferential band of granular pigment
2- usually Bilateral
3- b/t ora and equator
4- bone spicule-like
Peripheral senile pigmentary degeneration (aka reticular degeneration) is often confused with _______ due to the spicule-like appearance.
retinitis pigmentosa
Is white without pressure common and benign?
yes (30% of general population)
Retinal thinning and atrophy in the inner retina is called ________. (hint: this lesion has a wide variety of appearances)
Lattice degeneration
Can lattice degeneration involve holes?
What are 2 colors/appearances that lattice degeneration can have?
1- very dark
2- light and shimmery
________ is caused my progressive thinning--these lesions are always RED, round and well-demarcated.
atrophic retinal holes
Does atrophic retinal holes have vitreoretinal traction?
If you see an atrophic retinal hole surrounded by RPE hyperplasia- should you be alarmed?
NO!! This border of pigment is a GREAT thing--it means this hole is stable and has been there for 60-90 days!`
A red, round hole with overlying floating fragment of tisssue is ______.
operculated retinal hole
Where is an epiretinal membrane most likely to cause problems?
at the macula
With an epiretinal membrane, what appearance does the ILM take on?
cellophane, wrinkled
An epiretinal membrane is actually ________.
a proliferation of glial cells on ILM
If you see an epiretinal membrane around the macula--what 4 tests should you then do?
1- amsler (should find a metamorphopsia)
2- macular photostress (time prolonged)
3- use the red-free filter with BIO
4- watzke- allen ( should be negative due to pseudohole)
What is the triad for histoplasmosis?
1- histo spots
2- circumpapillary scarring
3- macular involvement

need at least 2 out of 3
Histoplasmosis is endemic in the _____.
Ohio-miss river valley
A histo spot is peripheral atrophy of the ______.
In Histoplasmosis, can macular involvment happen up to 30 years later?
oh yeah
A RPE "window effect" is an absence of _______________.
melanin withnin the RPE (NOT an absence of RPE)
Where does the RPE window effect occur? Does this affect vision?
ANYWHERE in the retina

No threat to vision!
A benign choroidal melanoma in 30% of the general population is a ______.
Choriodal nevus