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201 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Generic Name
Trade
Primary Indication
Therapeutic Class
Hydrocodone/APAP
Vicodin, Lortab, Lorcet

Pain
5-60mg(hydrodone daily)
Take w/ food
Constipation!
Analgesic
Levothyroxine
Synthroid, Levoxyl, Levothyroid, Unithyroid
inj. powder: 0.2 & 0.5mg
Tabs: 25-300mcg
CI'd in Recent MI or THYROTOXICOSIS, UNCORRECTED Adrenal insufficiency
Angina! ANX!
Alopecia!
Increased LFTs! TACHYCARDIA!
Cholestyramine / Al+ containing / Sucralfate / kayexalate / Phenytoin/ Rifampin DECREASE levels!


MoA: T4 converted to T3>>controls DNA transcription & Protein synthesis

Hormone
Lisinopril
Prinivil, Zestril
Hypertension
2.5-80mg/day
Lithium toxicity!
Potential HYPER-kalemia if used w/ NSAIDs, K+ sparers, ARBs, Aldosterone Receptor Blockers!
ACEiPrevents conversion of Angio 1 >> Angio2
Atorvastatin
Lipitor

Hyperlipidemia, Dyslipidemia, Hypercholesterolemia
10-80mg/day
3A4 SUBSTRATE!
HMG Co-A Reductase Inhibitor
Amoxicillin
Amoxil, Trimox

Bacterial Infection
250-500mg po;Q8H or 500-875mg Q12 H
Strep. Pneu, H. flu, E.Coli, Proteus, Salmonella, Shingella
Take 1Hr BEFORE or 2Hrs AFTER meals

Penicillin (Beta Lactams)
Inhibs Bacterial cell wall synthesis BacterioCIDAL
Hydrochlorothiazide
Hydrodiuril

Hypertension
NOT effective if CrCl < 30
Watch for Lithium Toxicity!
DECR. Anti-DM & NSAIDs anti-HTN effects!

Diuretic
Inhibits Na+ reabsorption in the DISTAL convoluted tubule
Azithromycin
Zithromax

Bacterial Infection
250-500mg (PO/IV) Q24H
Zmax: 2gm PO x 1
Gm(+) & Gm(-), Atypicals, Mycobacteria
CYP Interactions (but LESS than Biaxin!)...PREFERRED in PREGNANCY!

Macrolide
Binds toRibosome's 50S subunit>> Inhibs Bacterial Protein synthesis>>BacterioSTATIC
Metformin
Glucophage,Fotamet. Glumetza

Diabetes

500-2550mg
GI Intolerance (flatulence, intolerance, diarrhea)
Lactic Acidosis "Black Box Warning"
CIMETIDINE Incr.metformin in body by 60%
CI: Sever HF, Renal Failure, Radioactive Dye

Biguanide:
Decr. Hepatic glucose production
Decr. Intestinal glucose absorption
Improves insulin sensitivity
Atenolol
Tenormin

Hypertension
25-100mg/day
NO ABRUPT D/C
Taper over 2 weeks

Beta blocker
Decr. CO by (-)ve inotropic and (-)ve chronotropic efects
Cardioselective[@ low doses]Safer to use in pts w/ Asthma, COPD, PAD or DM
Simvastatin
Zocor
Hyperlipidemia, Dyslipidemia, Hypercholesterolemia
10-80mg/day
3A4 SUBSTRATE!
Lower the Max dose if starting Amiodarone, Verapamil, Fibrates, Cyclosporin or Niacin

HMG Co-A Reductase Inhibitor
Albuterol
Ventolin, Proventil, ProAIR HFA

Asthma, COPD

Bronchodilator
Metoprolol Succinate
Toprol XL

Hypertension
25-400mg/day
May mask HYPOglycemia in DM pts
NOT indicated for HF
No Abrupt D/C

Beta Blocker
Decr CO by (-)ve inotroptc and (-)ve chronitroptc efx
Cardioselective @ low doses LESS likley to cause bronchoconstriction/ venoconstriction @low doses
Safer in pts w/ Asthma, COPD, PAD, or DM
Alprazolam
Xanax, Nirazax ODT, Alprazolam, Intensol

Anxiety
IR: 0.25-2mg (QD-TID)
XR: 0.5-3mg (QD)
Max:4mg/day
Ataxia! Somnolence! Dizziness!
Changes in Appetite!
DECREASED LIBIDO!
Confusion! CONSTIPATION!
Blurred Vision!
Interacts w/ Ketoconazole/ Itrakonazole
Alcohol/ Digoxin / FLUOXETINE / Propoxyphene / Nefazodone
Metabolized by CYP450
C-IV
Preg. Cat.D
SMOKING decr. conc. up to50%!
PEDIATRIC DOSING!

Benzodiazepine
Binds to GABA receptors>>influx of Cl- >>HYPERpolarization>>less excitable state!
Furosemide
Lasix

Edema
20-600mg/day
Lithium Toxicity!
OTOtoxicity! (w/ Aminoglycosides)
Decreases anti-DM & NSAIDs efx!

Loop Diuretic
Inhibits Na+ absorption @ ASCENDING Loop (Decreases Preload)
Amlodipine
Norvasc

Hypertension
2.5-10mg/day
Reflex tachycardia!
GINGIVAL HYPERPLASIA!
PERIPHERAL Edema!
3A4 inhibitors INCREASE its effects!
DONT use w/ GRAPEFRUIT!

DHP Calcium Channel Blocker
Binds to L-type channels in Heart, Coronary/Peripheral arteries >>Vasodilation of Smooth muscle
DHP: MORE Selective to vasculature; NO effect on Cardiac Conduction!
Zolpiderm
Ambien

Insomnia

Sedative hypnotic
Sertaline
Zoloft
Depression
50-200mg QD
Oral Concentrate contains ALCOHOL!
Lightheadedness! Syncope! Sweating! N/D!
Xerostomia! Tremor!
HALLUCINATIONS!
EJACULATION DISORDERS!
IMPOTENCE! Rhinitis! Fatigue!
Interacts w/ MAOIs (CI'd), TRIPTANs, LINEZOLID (CI'd), St. JOHN'S WORT, TRAMADOL!

SSRI
inhibs reuptake of 5HT, allowing more seratonin (5HT) available in synapses
Metoprolol tartrate
Lopressor

Hypertension
BID dosing (25-400mg/day)
NO abrupt D/C Taper over 2 weeks
Masks HYPOglycemia in DM pts!

Beta Blocker
Decr. CO by (-)ve Inotropic & (-)ve Chronotropic efx
Montelukast
Singulair

Asthma

Leukotriene Inhibitor
Ecitalopram
Lexapro
Depression
10-20mg QD
Lightheadedness! Syncope! Sweating! N/D!
Xerostomia! Tremor!
HALLUCINATIONS!
EJACULATION DISORDERS!
IMPOTENCE! Rhinitis! Fatigue!
Interacts w/ MAOIs (CI'd), TRIPTANs,PRIMOZIDE (CI'd) LINEZOLID, St. JOHN'S WORT, TRAMADOL!

SSRI
inhibs reuptake of 5HT, allowing more seratonin (5HT) available in synapses
Ezomeprazole
Nexium

GERD, Peptic Ulcer Dz (PUD)
20-40mg/day
No OTC
PPI
Wafarin
Coumadin

Thomboembolism, Atrail Fibrillation

Vitamin K antagonist
Ibuprofen
Motrin

Inflammation, Pain

NSAID
Potassium Chloride
Klor-Con, K-Dur, Slow K

Hypoklemia

Supplement
Oxycodone/APAP
Percocet, Endocet

Pain
5-40mg/day(oxycodone daily)
Q6 hours PRN
Take w/ FOOD
Analgesic
Stimulate opioid receptors in Brain
Prednisone
Deltasone

Inflammation

Steroid
Cephalexin
Keflex

Bacterial Infection
250-500mg po; Q6H
Staph (most types), E.Coli, P.Mirabilis, K.pneu
Renal Adjust

Cephalosporin (Beta Lactams)
Inhibs bacterial cell wallsynthesis>>BacterioCIDAL
Clopidogrel
Plavix

ACS (Acute Coronary Syndrome) or MI Prevention
LD: 300-600mg then MD of 75mg QD
3A4 substrate! but 2C19 is Primary route
Its a PRODRUG converted to active thiol derivative
TTP! (rare)
Bleeding!
N/D
rash/pruritis!
FLU-like symptoms!
Antiplatelet
inhibs adenosine diphosphate-induced platelet aggregation
Fluoxetine
Prozac, Prozac Wkly, Sarafem, Rapiflux
Depression
20-60mg QD or 80-mg WEEKLY
Lightheadedness! Syncope! SWEATING! N/D! XEROSTOMIA! Confusion! Dizziness!
TREMORS! HALLUCINATION!
EJACULATION disorders!
IMPOTENCE! Rhinitis! Fatigue!
5week Washout prior to MAOI due to LONG half-life
interacts w/ MAOI (CI'd), TRIPTANS, PIMOZIDE (CI'd), LINEZOLID, ST JOHN'S WORT, TRAMADOL!

SSRI
inhibs reuptake of 5HT>>MORE seratonin available in synapse
Triamterene/ HCTZ
Maxzide, Dyazide

Hypertension

Diuretic
Propoxyphene-N/ APAP
Darvocet-N

Pain
65-100mg (propoxyphene)
Q4-6hrs
Take w/ FOOD

Analgesic
Lorazepam
Ativan

Anxiety

Benzodiazepine
Omeprazole
Prilosec

GERD, PUD
20mg/day
OTC & Rx (Caps)
See Aciphex for SEs

ZEGRID is Omeprazole + Sodium Bicarbonate (caps or suspension)


PPI
Irreversible inhibits H+/K+ ATPase in Parietal cells
Lansoprazole
Prevacid

GERD, PUD
15-30mg/day
available as ODT, caps & Granules

SE Aciphex for SEs
PPI
Clonazepam
Klonopin

Anxiety, Seizure

Benzodiazepine
Amoxicillin/Clavulanate
Augmentin

Bacterial Infection
IR, ER, and CHEWABLE tabs
treats MSSA, H.flu, E.Coli, K.Pneu, Anaerobes
Renal Adjust


Penicillin/ Beta lactamase inhibitor
an Aminopenicillin + a Beta Lactamase inhibitor
Simvastatin/Ezetimibe
Vytorin

Hyperlipidemia, Dyslipidemia, Hypercholesterolemia

HMG- Co A Reductase Inhibitor/ Cholesterol absorption inhibitor
Ciprofloxacin
Cipro
Bacterial Infection
IR: 250-750mg po Q12H
ER: 500-1000mg po Q24H
Gm(+), Gm(-) including PSEUDOMONAS, Atypicals
PHOTOsensitivity!
Separate its use from Antacids, Dairy, Iron, Mg...
use w/ Corticosteroids >>TENDON Rupture!!
Use w/ NSAIDs>> SEIZURES!!

Fluroquinolone
Inhibs DNA topoisomerase & Gyrase (inhibs Replication)>>BacterioCIDAL
Cyclobenzaprine
Flexeril

Muscle Spasm

Muscle relaxant
Tramadol
Ultram

Pain (Not a Control)
IR: 25-400mg daily Q4-6hrs
ER: 100-300mg Daily
Renal Dose if CrCl < 30

Analgesic
Binds to mu-opiate receptors in CNS >>blocks ascending pain pathways
Fluticasone/Salmeterol
Advair

Asthma, COPD

Inhaled steroid/long acting beta agonist
Paroxetine
Paxil

Depression
20-60mg QD
CI'd w/ Pimozide! MAOIs!
Interacts w/ MAOIs, SSRIs, TRIPTANS, LINEZOLID, TRAMADOL, ST. JOHN'S WORT!
SSRI
Gabapentin
Neurontin
300mg TID (start)
Max 3600mg
Seizure, Neuropathic Pain
MoA: induces releace of Substance P(key chemomediator of pain impulses from periphery)

Anticonvulsant
Sulfamethoxazole/ Trimethoprim
Bactrim, Septra

Bacterial infection
1 DS tab Q12h
Gm(+): MSSA, MRSA, & Gm(-)
DoC for PCP
PHOTOsensitivity!
Folate Deficiency!
CI'd in G6PD deficiency
Take w/ a FULL GLASS OF WATER!
Renal Adjust

Sulfonamide
inhibs incorporation of PABA into DNA>>Inhibs FOLIC ACID production/ Bacterial growth>>BacterioSTATIC
Ceitrizine
Zyrtec

Allergy

H1 receptor antagonist
Fexofenadine
Allegra

Allergy

H1 receptor antagonist
Venlafaxine
Effexor, Effexor XR

Depression
37.5-375mg daily (QD-TID)
Doses > 60mg do NOT provide additional benefit in Generalized ANX disorder!
CI'd in Uncontrolled Narrow-angle GLAUCOMA / MAOIs
Palpitations! Diaphoresis! Constipation!
DECr. Appetite! N/D! Blurred Vision!
Insomnia! XEROSTOMIA! Vertigo! POLYURIA!
COUGH! Nasopharyngitis! Fatigue!

SNRI
inhibits reuptake of 5HT & NE allowing more available @ synapse
Lisinopril/HCTZ
Zestoretic, Prinizide

HTN

ACEi/Diuretic
Citalopram
Celexa

Depression
10-60mg QD
Racemic Mixture; Lexapro is S-isomer
Interacts w/ MAOIs(CI'd), PRIMOZIDE (CI'd), TRIPTANS, LINEZOLID, ST. JOHN'S WORT, TRAMADOL!
Lightheadedness! Syncope! SWEATING! N/D!
XEROSTOMIA! Confusion! Dizziness! Somnolence! TREMOR!
HALLUCINATIONS! EJACULATION Disorders! IMPOTENCE!
RHINITIS! Fatigue!

SSRI
inhibits reuptake of seratonin, allowing MORE seratonin available in synapse
Pantoprazole
Protonix

GERD, PUD
20-40mg/day
No OTC?

See Aciphex for SEs
PPI
Trazodone
Desyrel

Depression, Insomnia

Inhibits 5HT reuptake
Lovastatin
Mevacor, Altoprev

Hyperlipidemia, Dyslipidemia, Hypercholesterolemia
20-80mg/day
3A4 SUBSTRATE!

HMG-Co-A Reductase
Valsartan
Diovan

Hypertension
80-320mg/day
Lithium toxicity!
Potential HYPERkalemia if used w/ NSAIDs, K+ sparers, Aldosterone receptor Blockers!

ARB
Inhibs binding of Angiotensin2 to AT1 receptors
Alendronate
Fosamax

Osteoporosis
Treat: 10mg QD or 70mg x 1week
Prevent: 5mg QD or 35mg x1 wk
Must take w/ At Least 8oz of water..At least 30 mins BEFORE other meds or Food
Remain UPRIGHT for at least 30mins
Nausea! DYSPEPSIA!
ESOPHAGEAL irritation!
MUSCLE PAIN!
NSAIDs & ASA INCr. GI symptoms!

Bisphosphonate
adsorb to bone apatite & inhibits osteoclast activity
Bupropion
Wellbutrin, Zyban

Depression, Smooking Cessation
Ezetimibe
Zetia

Hyperlipidemia, Dyslipidemia, Hypercholesterolemia
10mg/day
Interacts w/ WARFARIN, Cyclosporine & Fibrates
Diarrhea! Headache!

Cholesterol absorption inhibitor
Stops absorption from the small intestine
Acetaminophen/ Codeine
Tylenol #3, Tylenol # 4

Pain
7.5-360mg (codeine daily)
Q4-6hrs
constipation!
CNS Depression!
Respiratory Depression!
Take w/ FOOD

Analgesic
Rosuvastatin
Crestor

Hyperlipidemia, Dyslipidemia, Hypercholesterolemia
5-40mg/day
3A4 SUBSTRATE!
Adjust Dose if CrCl < 30

HMG-Co-A reductase inhibitor
Levofloxacin
Levaquin

Bacterial infection
250-750mg (IV/PO) Q24H
Gm(+)[esp. Staph], Gm(-), & Atypicals
PHOTOsensitivity!
Separate use from Antacids, Iron, Mg, Dairy..
use w/ Corticosteroids>>TENDON RUPTURE!
Use w/ NSAIDs>>SEIZURES!

Fluroquinolone
inhibs DNA topoisomerase & Gyrase (inhibs replication >>>BacterioCIDAL
Amitriptyline
Elavil, Vanatrip

Depression
50-300mg Daily (QD-TID)
Same Interactions as SSRIs
WEIGHT GAIN! BLOATING! ANTICHOLINERGIC SYMPS.! [Other SE's seen in SSRIs]
DANGEROUS in overdoses!
Also used in SLEEP disorders

TCA
increased synaptic conc. of NE & 5HT
Diazepam
Valium, Diazepam Intensol

Anxiety
2-10mg (BID-QID)
C-IV
Preg. Cat. D
SMOKING Decr. conc. up to 50%!
PEDIATRIC dosing
CI'd in Narrow angle Glaucoma
Somnolence! Ataxia! Dizziness! CHANGE IN APPETITE!
DECr. Libido!
Confusion! Constipation! Blurred Vision!

Benzodiazepine
Bids to GABA receptors>>influx of Cl->>HYPERpolarization
Naproxen
Naprosyn

Inflammation, Pain
BID dosing (1500mg max)
Take w/ FOOD

NSAID
exact MoA unknown>>inhibits Cycloxygenase & Lipooxygenase, Reduces Prostaglandin Synthesis
Enalapril
Vasotec

HTN
2.5-40mg/day
Lithium toxicity!
Potential HYPERkalemia if used w/ NSAIDs, ARBs, K+ sparers, Aldosterone receptor blockers!

ACEi
Stops conversion of Angiotensin 1>>Angiotensin2
Valsartan/HCTZ
Diovan HCT

HTN

ARB/ Diuretic
Ranitidine
Zantac

GERD, heartburn

H2 Receptor antagonist
Duloxetine
Cymbalta

Depression, Neuropathic Pain

SNRI
Fluconazide
Diflucan

Fungal Infection
100-800 (IV/PO) Q24H
Candida, Coccidiodes, Histoplasma, Aspergilis
Headache! N/V/D!
RASH! incr.LFTs!
PROLONGED QT-INTERVAL!
Renal Adjust

Antifungal
(Triazole)
Inhibs Ergosterol synthesis
Pioglitazone
Actos

Diabetes

Thiazolidinedione (TZD)
Carisoprodol
Soma

Muscle Spasm

Muscle Relaxant
Conjugated Estrogen
Premarin

Menopause

Hormone
Allopurinol
Zyloprim

Gout
100-800mg QD
Renal Adjust
SKIN RASH!
Leukopenia!
GI upset!
Interacts w/ Mercaptopurine!
Interacts w/ Azathioprine!

Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitor
>>inhibs conversion of XO to Uric Acid>>DECr. Production of Uric Acid
Doxycycline
Doryx, Vibramycin

Bacterial Infection
10omg (IV/PO) Q12H
Gm(-), Gm(+), Atypicals
PHOTOSENSITIVITY!
DISCOLORED TEETH! (Permanent)
Impaired teeth/bone growth!
Antacids & Iron DECR. Absorption!
3A4 Interactions!

Tetracycline
Binds to Ribosomal 30S subunit>>BacterioSTATIC
Methylprednisone
Medrol

Inflammation

Steroid
Celecoxib
Celebrex

Arthritis
50-200mg/Daily
(QD-BID dosing)


Cox-2 inhibitor
Tamsulosin
Flomax

BPH

Alpha 1 receptor antagonist
Quetiapine
Seroquel

Schizophrenia

Atypical Antipsychotic
Clonidine
Catapres

HTN

Alpha 2 receptor agonist
Mometasone
Nasonex, Asmanex

Allergic Rhinitis, Asthma
220-440mcg/day
NOT used as primary tx for Bronchospasm!
Throat irritation!
Oral Candidiasis!
Cough! Lower Resp. infxn!

Steroid
Glucocorticoid receptor agonist >>anti-INFLAMM & immunosuppressive props
Fenofibrate
Tricor,Triglyde, Lofibra, Lipoten, Antara

Hyperlipidemia, Dyslipidemia, Hypercholesterolemia
40-200mg/day
N/V/D!
Abd pain!
Avoid using fibrates w/ STATINS (myopathy risk!) But if necessary, this is PREFFERED!
Increases efx of WARFARIN! & Sulfonylureas!
Decreases Cyclosporin levels!


Fibric Acid Derivative
Increases Lipoprotein lipase activity>>DECr. VLDL>>DECr. TGs!
Insulin Glargine
Lantus

Diabetes
Hormone
Sidenafil
Viagra

Erectile Dysfunction

Phosphodiesterase Inhibitor
Ramipril
Altace

HTN
1.25-20mg/day
Lithium Toxicity!
Potential HYPERkalemia if used w/ NSAIDS, K+ sparers, ARBs, Aldosterone receptor blockers!

ACEI
Stops conversion of Angio1>>Angio2
Promethazine
Phenergan

N/V

Antiemetic
Drospirenone/ Ethinyl Estradiol
Yasmin, Yaz

Contraception
30mcg Estradiol &3mg drospirinone
Decr. duration of menses

Hormone
Mono-phasic/ Low dose estrogen
Isorbide Mononitrate
Imdur

Angina

Nitrate
causes Venous Dilation (Lowers PRELOAD)
Amphetamine / Dextroamphetamine
Adderall, Adderall XR

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADD, ADHD)

Stimulant
Meloxicam
Mobic

Arthritis
7.5-15mg QD

Cox 2 inhibitor
LESS GI probs than traditional NSAIDs
Verapamil
Verelan, Calan, Isoptin

HTN
120-360mg/day

Bradycardia/Heartblock!
CONSTIPATION!
PERIPHERAL EDEMA!
GINGIVAL HYPERPLASIA!
HF exascerbation!

Non-DHP CCB
Causes LESS Peripheral vasodilation than DHPs. Affects Heart more
Amlodipine/Benazepril
Lotrel

HTN

DHP CCB/ ACEi
Reisdronate
Actonel

Osteoporosis

Bisphosphonate
Losartan
Cozaar

HTN
25-100mg/day
Lithium Toxicity!
Potential HYPERKalemiaif used w/ NSAIDs, ACEIs, K+ sparers, Aldosterone Receptor Blockers!

ARB (angio 2 receptor blocker):
inhibs binding of Angiotensin2 >>AT-1 receptors
Carvedilol
Coreg

Heart Failure
IR & CR forms
IR: 12.5-50mg/day (2 divided doses)
Also has Alpha-blocking props
Same SEs as selective Bbs!

Beta Blocker(non-selective)
Decr. CO by (-)ve inotropic & (-)ve chronotropic effects
Folic Acid
Folvite

Anemia, Pregnancy

Supplement
Glyburide
Micronase, Diabeta, Glynase

Diabetes
1.25-20mg
CI'd in TYPE 1 DM! SULFA allergies!
Cimetidine INCr. HYPOglycemic effects!
CHRONIC Alcohol DECr. hypoglycemic effects!

Sulfonylurea
stimulate insulin release from Pancreatic BETA cells
Penicillin VK
Pen- Vee K, Veetids, V-Cillin K

Bacterial Infection
250-500mg Q6hrs
Take 1hr BEFORE or 2hrs AFTER meals

Penicillin (Beta Lactam)
inhibs Bacterial cell wall synthesis>>BacterioCIDAL
Spirinolactone
Aldactone

Hyperaldosteronism, Heart Failure
12.5-50mg/day
HYPERkalemia! [esp. w/ ACEIs, ARBs, K+ supplements, NSAIDs
Non-selective blocking of Androgen & Progesterone receptors:
Gynomastia!
Breast tenderness!
Menstrual Changes!
Hirsutism!

DECREASED MORTALITY!!

Aldosterone Antagonist
also DECR. REMODELING & Na+/Water retention
Valacyclovir
Valtrex
[a PRODRUG of acyclovir]

Herpes
1gm po Q12H; for 7-10 days (Initial episode)

Cold Sores
2gm po Q12H x 1

Herpes Zoster
1gm PO Q8H x 7days
N/V/D!
Headache!
SEIZURES in Renal patients!


Antiviral
inhibit viral DNA polymerase>>inhibs replication of viral DNA
Pregabalin
Lyrica

Neuropathic Pain (assoc. w/ DM), Fibromyalgia
MoA: induces Substance P release
75mg (start)
450mg (Max/day)
Somnolence!
Dizziness!
PERIPHERAL edema!

Anitconvulsant (C-5)
Temazepam
Restoril

Insomnia

Benzodiazepine
Methylphenidate
Concerta, Daytrana, Metadate

ADD, ADHD

Stimulant
Glimepiride
Amaryl

Diabetes

Sulfonylurea
Risperidone
Risperdal

Schizophrenia

Atypical Antipsychotic
Digoxin
Digitek, Lanoxin

Arrhythmia, Heart Failure
0.125-0.25mg/day
Target level: 0.5-1ng/mL

Bradycardia/Heartblock!
Digoxin Toxicity: visual disturbances, N/V, Confusion, ANOREXIA, Arrhythmias!
NO EFFECT ON MORTALITY!
Antacids decrease its effects!
Decrease dose by 50% if starting Amiodarone!
Renal Adjust


Cardiac Glycoside
inhibs the Na+/K+/ ATPase pump>>Increases cellular Ca+>>Incr. Myocardial Contraction
Topiramate
Topamax

Seizure

Anticonvulsant
Triamcinolone topical
Aristocort, Kenalog

Rash, Eczema

Steroid
Vareniciline
Chantix

Smoking Cessation

Partial Nicotinic Receptor Agonist
Rosiglitazone
Avandia

Diabetes

Thiazolidinedione (TZD)
Clindamycin,
Cleocin, Clindesse, Evoclin

Bacterial Infection, Acne (topical)
Many different dosage forms
Gm(+) & Anaerobes
PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS COLITIS!
Affects Condoms& Diagphragms if used intravaginally!



Lincosamide Abx
Binds to 50S subunit>>inhibs protein synthesis>>BacterioSTATIC
Lamotrigine
Lamictal

Seizures

Anticonvulsant
Norgestimate/ Ethinyl Estadiol
Ortho Tri-Cyclen, Ortho Tri- Cyclen Lo, Sprintec

Contraception

Hormone
Glipizide
Glucotrol, Glucotrol XL

Diabetes

Sulfonylurea
Latanoprost
Xalatan

Glaucoma

Prostaglandin analog
Benazepril
Lotensin

HTN
5-40mg/day
Lithium toxicity!
Potential HYPERkalemia if used w/ NSAIDs, K+ sparers, ARBs, Aldosterone receptor Blockers!

ACEi
Stops conversion of Angio1>>Angio2
Rabeprazole
Aciphex

GERD, PUD
20mg/Day
Diarrhea!
Headache!
DECr. absorption of Ketoconazole, Itraconazole & meds requiring Acidic env. for absorb.

PPI
irreversibly inhibits H+/K ATPase in PARIETAL CELLS>>inhib. gastric acid secretion
Metronidazole
Flagyl, Metrogel, Noritate, Vandazole

Bacterial Infection
250-500 po; Q8-12H or 500 IV Q 8-12H
Treats ANAEROBES

Separate use from FOOD!
METALLIC taste!
DISULFRAM-like rxn when used w/ Alcohol!
CI'd in PREGNANCY (1st Trimester)
DoC for C.Diff


MoA: Interferes w/ Bacterial DNA synthesis>>BacterioCIDAL
Losartan/ HCTZ
Hyzar

HTN

ARB/Diuretic
Tiotropium
Spiriva

COPD

Anticholinergic
Metoclopramide
Reglan

GERD, Gastroparesis

Prokinetic
Eszopiclone
Lunesta

Insomnia

Sedative hypnotic
Quinapril
Accupril

HTN
10-80mg/day
Lithium Toxicity!
Potential HYPERkalemia if used w/ NSAIDs, ARBs, K+ sparers, Aldosterone receptor blockers!

ACEi
stops conversion of Angio1>>Angio2
Olmesartan
Benicar

HTN
20-40mg/day
SEs same as ACEIs except no cough

ARB
Inhibs binding of Angio2 to AT-1 receptor>>vasodilation..Decr. Aldosterone production
Donepezil
Aricept

Alzheimer's Dementia

Cholinesterase Inhibitor
Estradiol
Estrace, Vivelle, Climara

Menopause

Hormone
Irbesartan
Avapro

HTN
75-300mg/day
SEs same as for ACEIs except no cough


ARB
stops binding of Angiotensin2>>AT-1 receptor>>vasodilation>>DECr Aldosterone production
Tolterodine
Detrol

Urinary Incontinence
1-2mg po daily
2-4mg po 1x daily (Detrol LR)
LESS SEs w/ LR
DRY mouth! DRY eyes!
CONSTIPATION!
INCREASED INTRA-OCULAR PRESSURE!
Somnolence!
Blurred vision!
Additive efx w/ other Anticholinergic meds


Anticholinergic
Gemfibrozil
Lopid

Hyperlipidemia, Dyslipidemia, Hypercholesterolemia
1200mg/day

N/V/D!
Abd pain!
Myopathy!
Avoid use w/ Statins! (myopathy risk)
INCr Efx of WARFARIN & SULFONYLUREAS
DECR. CYCLOSPORINE levels


Fibric Acid Derivative
Increases Lipoprotein lipase activity>>Decr. VLDL>>Decr TGs
Oxycodone
Roxicodone, Oxycontin, OxyIR

Pain
10-40mg BID
(caution if > 160mg BID)

Analgesic
Stimulates opioid receptors in brain
Doxazosin
Cardura

BPH

Alpha 1 receptor antagonist
Meclizine
Antivert

Vertigo, Motion Sickness

H1 receptor blocker
Tadalafil
Cialis

Erectile Dysfunction
2.5-20mg PRN sex or 2.5-5mg po 1x daily
Erection occurs only after physical stimulation
Interacts w/
NITRATES!
Alpha-Blockers! AVOID..potentially FATAL HypoTN!
Metabolized by 3A4

Phosphodiesterase Inhibitor
INCREASED Nitric Oxide activity [by inhib PDE-5; resp. for its degradation]>>relaxed smooth muscle & vasodilation
Mirtazapine
Remeron

Depression
Ipratropium/ Albuterol
Combivent

COPD

Anticholinergic/ Bronchodilator
Nitrofurantoin
Macrobid, Macrodantin

Bacterial Infection
Glyburide/Metformin
Glucovance

Diabetes

Sulfonylurea/Biguanide
Acyclovir
Zovirax

Herpes
200mg po; 5x/day, for 7-10days
5mg/kg IV Q8H x 5-7days

Also treats Cold sores, Varicella (chicken pox),shingles

Topical cream/ ointment available
See Valacyclovir for SEs

Antiviral
inhibs viral DNA polymerase
Sumitriptan
Imitrex
Oral tabs, SC injection, NASAL SPRAY
tabs: 25-100mg po @ onset, then Q2H PRN up to 200mg/day

Fatigue! Dizziness! Flushing! NECK/THROAT PRESSURE!

Migraine Headache
A Seratonin AGONIST (triptan):>>VasoCONSTRICTION in Cerebral vasculature

Serotonin Agonist
Raloxifene
Evista

Osteoporosis, Breast Cancer
60mg 1x daily
CI'd in PE or DVT, Pregnancy/Lactation
Hot flashes!
Leg Cramps!
THROMBOEMBOLISM!
interacts w/ WARFARIN, CHOLESTYRAMINE!


Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator (SERM)
Selectively binds to estrogen receptors>>DECREASES. Bone Resorption
Etonogestrel/ Ethinyl Estradiol
NuvaRing

Contraception

Hormone
Diltiazem
Cartia, Cardizem, Tiazac

HTN
120-540mg/day
bradycardia/heartblock!
CONSTIPATION!
PERIPHERAL Edema!
GINGIVAL HYPERPLASIA!
HF exascerbation!

Non DHP CCB
Causes LESS peripheral vasodilation than DHPs. Affects heart more
Fentanyl Transdermal
Duragesic, Actiq, Fentora

Pain

Patch takes 24hrs to work!
Fentanyl remains in patch @ 72hrs (fold in half to avoid dispersion

Analgesic
Stimulates opioid receptors in the brain
Niacin
Niaspan

Hyperlipidemia, Dyslipidemia, Hypercholesterolemia
500-3000mg/day

Flushing! Itching!
Nausea!
ORTHOstatic HTN!
Raised LFTs!
MYOpathy!
HYPERuricemia!
HYPERglycemia!

Nicotinic Acid
Reduces VLDL in liver>>DECR. synthesis of LDL-C
Buspirone
Buspar

Anxiety
Nabumetone
Relafen

Inflammation, Pain

NSAID
Promethazine/ Codeine
Phenergan with Codeine

Cough
Ibandronate
Boniva

Osteoporosis
5mg daily or 35mg 1x WEEKLY
Take w/ AT LEAST 8 OZ OF WATER 30 MINS BEFORE OTHER MEDS OR FOOD!
Must remain UPRIGHT FOR ATLEAST 30 MINS!
Nausea! Dyspepsia!
ESOPHAGEAL IRRITATION! Ulceration!
MUSCLE PAIN!
Interacts w/ NSAIDs & ASA >>INCr GI probs!

Bisphosphanate
Adsorb to bone apatite & INHIBIT Osteoclast activity
Methotrexate
Rheumatrex
Rheumatoid Arthritis
IM or SC 15-25mg/week
Only effective for Crohn's disease
Hepatotoxicity! Bone marrow suppression! Pneumonitis! Rash! N/D!
NSAIDs & salicylates INCREASE toxicity risk!
PCNs & sulfonamides & Tetracyclines INCREASE toxicity risk!
Antimetabolite via Folic Acid antagonism
Immunosuppessant via DECr. production of inflammatory mediators (ex.INTERLEUKINs)
Fluticasone
Flovent, Flonase

Asthma, Allergic Rhinitis

Steroid
Bisprolol/ HCTZ
Ziac

HTN

Beta Blocker/ Diuretic
Butalbital/ APAP / Caffeine
Fioricet

Headache

analgesic
Phentermine
Adipex-P, Fastin

Weight Loss

Stimulant
Moxifloxacin
Avelox

bacterial infection
400mg po Q24H
Gm(+) [esp. Strep], Gm (-), Atypicals
PHOTOsensitivity!
Separate use from Antacisd, dairy, Iron, Mg!
Use w/ Corticosteroids>>TENDON RUPTURE!
Use w/ NSAIDs>>SEIZURES!


Fluroquinolone
Inhibs DNA topoisomerase & gyrase (inhibs. replication)>>BacterioCIDAL
Clotrimazole/ Betamethasone
Lotrisone

Topical Fungal infections

Antifungal/ Steroid
Minocycline
Minocin, Dynacin

Bacterial Infection
100mg po; Q4-12hrs
IR & ER dosing
PHOTOsensitivity!
Discolored teeth (Permanent)!
Impaired teeth/Bone Growth!
Antacids & Iron DECR. Absorption
3A4 INTERACTIONS!


Tetracycline
Binds to 30S subunit>>BacterioSTATIC
Nifedipine
Procardia, Adalat

HTN
30-180mg/day
DONT use SL Nifedipine [MI & Death]!
Reflex Tachycardia!
GINGIVAL HYPERPLASIA!
PERIPHERAL Edema!
3A4 inhibitors INCREASE its effects!

DHP CCB
Binds to L-type channels in Heart, Coronary/Peripheral arteries>>Vasodilation of smooth muscle
DHP: MORE selective to vasculature; NO effect on Cardiac conduction!
Aripiprazole
Abilify

Schizophrenia

Atypical Antipsychotic
Cefdinir
Omnicef

Bacterial Infection
300mg Q12H or 600mg QD
Antacids & Iron DECREASE absorption!
Renal adjust

cephalosporin
Inhibs Bacterial Cell wall synthesis>>BacterioCIDAL
Irebesartan/ HCTZ
Avalide

HTN

ARB/ Diuretic
Terazosin
Hytrin

BPH
1-10mg po, daily HS(to prevent dizziness/falls during the day)

HYPOTN!
ORTHOstasis!
Syncope! Dizziness!
Interacts w/ PDE inhibitors! Anti-HTN meds!>>HypoTN!!


Alpha 1 receptor antagonist
Mupirocin
Bactroban

Impertigo
Felodipine
Plendil

HTN
2.5-20mg/day

Reflex Tachycardia!
GINGIVAL HYPERPLASIA!
PERIPHERAL edema!
3A4 inhibitors INCREASE its effects!
DONT use w/ GRAPEFRUIT JUICE!

DHP CCB
Binds to L-type channels in Heart, Coronary/Peripheral arteries>>Vasodilation of Smooth Muscle

DHP: MORE selective to vasulature; NO effect on cardiac conduction
Ropinirole
Requip

Parkinson's Disease, Restless Leg Syndrome

Dopamine Agonist
Olanzepine
Zyprexa

Schizophrenia

Atypical Antipsychotic
Valpric Acid
Depakote, Depakene

Seizure, Bipolar Disorder

Anticonvulsant
Metaxolone
Skelaxin

Muscle Spasm

Muscle Relaxant
Tramadol/ APAP
Ultracet

Pain
2 tabs Q 4-6hrs PRN
(Max 4gm of APAP)

Analgesic
Tizanidine
Zanaflex

Muscle Spasm

Muscle Relaxant
Insulin Lispro
Humalog

Diabetes

Hormone
Ferrous Sulfate
Niferex, Feosol

Anemia

Supplement
Phenytoin
Dilantin

Seizures

Anticonvulsant
Methadone
Dolophine

Pain
2.5-10mg/Q8-12hrs (for naive pts)
Long Half-life
CYP 3A4 INHIBITOR!


Analgesic
















Analgesic
Lithium
Eskalith, Lithobid

Bipolar Disorder
300-1200mg daily (BID-TID)
Serum conc. 0.6-1.5mEq/L
D/V! Drowsiness!
MUSCLE WEAKNESS!
LACK OF COORDINATION!
ATAXIA!
BLURRED VISION!
TINNITUS!
SIGNIFICANT interactions w/ ACEIs & Diuretics which decr. Lithium Clearance!


Mood Stabilizer
Alter'd Na transport>>shift to intraneuronal metabolism of Catecholamines
Methocarbamol
Robaxin

Muscle Spasm

Muscel Relaxant
Benzonate
Tessalon

Cough

Anesthetic
Memantine
Namenda

Alzheimer'd Dementia

NMDA receptor Antagonist
Famotidine
Pepcid

GERD, heartburn
20-80mg/day
'Pepcid Complet'e contains Calcium carbonate & Magnesium hydroxide!
OTC and Rx forms
Headache! Fatigue! Dizziness! Confusion!
Renal Adjust

H2 Receptor Antagonist
Reversibly inhibits H (Histamine)2 receptors in Parietal cells
Lidocaine
Lidoderm

Pain

Anesthetic
Atomoxetine
Strattera

ADD, ADHD

Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitor
Levonorgestrel/ Ethinyl Estradiol
Alesse, Aviane, Levora, Lo Ovral, Seasonale (Others)

Contraception
20mcg Estradiol/0.1 mg Levonorgestrel (Alesse & Aviane)
30mcg E.E/ 0.15 mg Lev
N/V! Bleeding! Wt Change! Edema!
VTE!!
INTERACTS w/
Antibiotics!
Anticonvulsants!
Protease Inhibitors!
Rifampin!
[need BACKUP method for at least 1 week; if on chronic tx w/ above meds]
Hormone
Atenolol/ Chlorthalidone
Tenoretic

HTN

Beta blocker/Diuretic
Phenazopyridine
Pyridium

Urinary tract Infection

Analgesic
Chlorhexidine
Peridex

Gingivitis

Antiseptic
Nitroglycerine
Nitroquick, Nitrostat

Angina

Nitrate
Olopatadine
Patanol

Allergy

H1 receptor Antagonist
Etodolac
Lodine

Inflammation, Pain

NSAID
Cochicine
Colchicine

Gout
1mg then 0.5mg Q2H until sx resolve; or Diarrhea; or 8mg taken
Used for Treatm't & Prophylaxis
N/V/D!
Bone Marrow Suppression! (Rare)
Aplastic anemia! (Rare)
Thrombocytopenia! (Rare)


Anti-inflammatory
inhibs Lactc acid prod. DECr. Uric Acid Deposition, Reduces Phagocytosis & DECr. Inflammation
Finasteride
Proscar, Propecia

BPH, Alopecia

5 alpha reductase Inhibitor
Clarithromycin
Biaxin

bacterial Infection
IR & ER dosing (BID & TID)
Take ER w/ FOOD!
Max: 1000mg/day
3A4 INHIBITOR & SUBSTRATE!
TORSADES risk!
WARFARIN & DIGOXIN toxicity!


macrolide
Binds to 50S subunit>>inhibits Bacterial protein synthesis>>BacterioSTATIC
Nortiptyline
Aventyl, Pamelor

Depression

TCA
Hydroxychloroquine
Plaquenil

Malaria, Rheumatoid arthritis, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)
Dicyclomine
Bentyl

Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)

Anticholinergic
Desoloratadine
Clarinex

Allergy

H1 receptor antagonist
Insulin Aspart
NovoLog

Diabetes

Hormone
Hyoscyamine
Levsin

PUD, IBS

Anticholinergic
Sitagliptan
Januvia

Diabetes

DPP-4 Inhibitor
Levalbuterol
Xopenex

Asthma, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

Bronchodilator
Amiodarone
Cordarone, Pacerone


Arrhythmia
IV & PO dising
Bradycardia/ Heartblock/ HYPOTN (IV)!
Thyroid probs (po)!
Pulmonary fibrosis (po)!
Bradycardia/Heartblock (po)!
Cornea deposits (po)!
PHOTOsensitivity!
Blue-grey skin (po)!
3A4 SUBSTRATE!
LONG Halle-life (months)!
Take w/ FOOD!

Anti-arrhythmic Class 3
K+ channel,Na+chanel, Ca+ channel & Beta-Blocker
Propranolol
Inderal, InnoPran
HTN
IR & ER forms
IR: 80-640mg/day (2-3x/ Daily)
Same SE's as selective Bbs


BetaBlocker (nonselective)
CNS-related side effect due to its lipophilicity
Hydroxyzine
Atarax, Vistaril

Allergy, Pruritus

H1 Recptor Antagonist
Diclofenac
Voltaren, Cataflam

Inflammation, Pain
50-150mg daily (BID-TID)
GI bleed/upset! Rash!
DECr. RENAL fxn! EDEMA!
Interacts w/ salacylates/ WARFARIN / LITHIUM / ACEIs!

Give w/ FOOD!

NSAID
DECr. pain via inhibition of CENTRAL Cyclooxygenase>>inhibits Prostaglandin synthesis
Olmesartan/ HCTZ
Benicar HCT

HTN

ARB/Diuretic