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19 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is fluoroscopy used for?
Evaluating things that move like
-diaphragm
-GI tract
-blood vessels and heart
-inserting catheter or fixation devices
In what order does CT go through body?
Bone
Water
Fat
Air
Why do different parts of body show up as different colors on CT and XRAY scans?
Because of differences in density and atomic number
What is CT good for?
Finding pathology
Multiplanar reconstruction = 3D
In vivo autopsy
How are x-rays generated?
X-rays are generated by collision of high energy electrons with metallic anode producing photons
What is hyperplasia?
increase in cell number, usually with increase in tissue mass
Types of physiologic hyperplasia
Hormonal - glandular epithelium in breast during pregnancy
Compensatory - kidney after nephrectomy
Types of pathologic hyperplasia
Breeding ground for cancer!
Endometrial hyperplasia
BPH
What is hypertrophy? Example of physiologic? Example of pathogenic?
Increase in cell size
Phys: skeletal muscle
Path: cardiomyocytes and increased AL (HTN)
What is metaplasia?
Change in 1 differentiated cell type into another differentiated cell type
-usually adaptive
-usually reversible
Examples of metaplasia?
Smoking and resp epithelium
Barrett esophagus
What is dysplasia?
Atypical proliferation of cells with:
-abnormal appearance (pleomorphism, nuclear enlargement (increased N:C) and irregularity)
-disorderly rearrangement
-hyperchromasia
What is pleomorphism?
Variation in size and shape
What is hyperchromasia?
Dark staining of nuclei - occurs during dysplasia
What is neoplasia?
Abnormal growth of tissue
Excessive growth of tissue
Uncoordinated and autonomous
Benign and malignant
What is a benign neoplasm?
Growth without invasion or spread
-usually grows slowly
-remains localized
What causes morbidity for a benign neoplasm?
Size
Anatomic location
Production of hormone
Describe the nomenclature of benign neoplasm?
Add -oma
Osteoma
Chondroma
Adenoma
Histology of Benign Neoplasms
Resembles normal counterpart
Well differentiated
Low mitotic rate
Well circumscribed
Do not metastasize