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37 Cards in this Set

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mechanisms of hemostasis
a sequence of responses that stops bleeding

3 mechanisms
1.vascular spasm
2.platelet plug formation
3. blood clotting (coagulation)
extrinsic pathway of blood clotting
occurs rapidly, within a matter of seconds when trauma is severe.
Tissue factor (thromboplastin) leaks into the blood from cells outside blood vessels and initiates the formation of prothrominase
3 stages of blood clotting cascade
1.two pathways intrinsic and extrinsic
2.prothrombinase converts prothrombin into enzyme thrombin
3.thrombin converts soluble fibrinogen into insoluble fibrin. fibrin forms the thread of the clot
fibrinolytic system
dissolves small inappropriate clots; it also dissolves clots at a site of damage once the damage is repaired
anticoagulants
a substance that can delay, supress, or prevent clotting of blood
thrombosis
the formation of a clot in an unbroken blood vessel, usually a vein
compatible transfusion types
type A can recieve A,O
type B can recieve B,O
type AB can recieve A,B,AB,O
type O can recieve O
incompatible transfusion types
type A cant recieve B,AB
type B cant recieve A,AB
type AB can recieve any
type O cant recieve A,B,AB
Rh+ blood group
people whose RBCs have Rh antigens
Rh- blood group
people who lack Rh antigens
Rh incompatiblity to Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn
at birth a small quantity of fetal blood usually leaks across the placenta into the maternal bloodstream. upon exposure to the Rh antigens the mother's immune system responds by making anti Rh antibodies. During a subsequent pregnancy, the maternal antibodies cross the placenta into the fetal blood. if 2nd fetus is Rh+ the ensuing antigen-antibody reaction causes agglutination and hemolysis of fetal RBCs. the result is HDN.
pericardium
the membrane that surrounds and protects the heart
pericardial cavity
the space that contains the few milliliters of pericardial fluid
epicardium
the thin, transparent outer layer of the heart wall, also called the visceral layer of the serous pericardium
right atrium
recieves blood from 3 veins:
1. superior vena cava
2. inferior vena cava
3. coronary sinus
left atrium
forms most of the base of the heart, recieves blood from the lungs through four pulmonary veins
right ventricle
the chamber on the right side of the heart that receives venous blood from the right atrium and pumps it into the pulmonary trunk
left ventricle
the chamber on the left side of the heart that receives arterial blood from the left atrium and pumps it into the aorta
superior vena cava
receives blood from the head and arms and chest and empties into the right atrium of the heart; formed from the azygos and both brachiocephalic veins
inferior vena cava
receives blood from lower limbs and abdominal organs and empties into the posterior part of the right atrium of the heart; formed from the union of the two iliac veins
pulmonary artery
an artery conveying venous blood from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs.
aorta
the main trunk of the arterial system, conveying blood from the left ventricle of the heart to all of the body except the lungs.
tricuspid valve
the valve, consisting of three triangular flaps of tissue between the right auricle and ventricle of the heart, that keeps blood from flowing back into the auricle.
bicuspid valve
the valve between the left atrium and left ventricle of the heart, consisting of two triangular flaps of tissue, that prevents the blood from flowing back into the atrium.
pulmonary semilunar valve
a semilunar valve between the pulmonary artery and the right ventricle of the heart that prevents the blood from flowing back into the right ventricle.
interatrial septum
The wall between the atria of the heart.
chordae tendinae
any of the tendons extending from the papillary muscles to the atrioventricular valves and preventing the valves from moving into the atria during ventricular contraction.
papillary muscles
one of the small bundles of muscles attached to the ventricle walls and to the chordae tendineae that tighten these tendons during ventricular contraction.
auricle
wrinkled pouchlike structureon the anterior surface of each atrium that slightly increases capacity of an atrium
left coronary artery
arises from the left aortic sinus; supplies the left side of the heart
circumflex branch
in coronary sulcus, supplies left atrium and left ventricle
anterior interventricular branch AKA left anterior descending artery
supplies both ventricles
right coronary artery
arises from the right aortic sinus; supplies the right side of the heart
marginal branch
in coronary sulcus, supplies right ventricle
posterior interventricular branch
supplies both ventricles
coronary veins
any of several veins that receive blood from the heart wall and empty into the coronary sinus.
flow of deoxygenated blood through the heart
deoxygentated blood starts in the right atrium, pumps through the tricuspid valve, in the right ventricle, through pulmonary valve, into pulmonary trunk and arteries, in pulmonary capillaries, blood loses CO2, and gains O2.