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38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
name the 4 components of subluxation as identified by bj palmer
1-vertebral misalignment leads to
2-foramen occlusion leads to
3-nerve pressure resulting in
4-mental impulse transmission interference
bj says...
"condition superior to axis is a true primary subluxation cause upon which only an adjustment can be given. any condition inferior to axis is a false and secondary misallignment"
right adjustment
bj believed this was a toggle recoil which enabled the patient's innate to take the concussion force applied by the doctor in the most beneficial manner
right place
bj believed this was the upper cervical area, the only area where a true subluxation can exist
right time
bj used instrumentation to find the time that the patient was truly in a subluxated state.
right manner
bj believed that when a chiropractor makes an intervention into the nervous system they must make certain that it is done with the proper line of correction and the proper line of contact.
basis for thermography
all living things emit an infared radiation
IR emissions are a biproduct of cellular metabolism
increased activity raises IR emissions
controls and integrates the ANS. controls heat loss rates by regulating vasodilation and vasoconstriction. local skin temps. are detnd. by SNS activity controlled by the hypothalamus.
normal IR temp range
around 0.5 degrees bilaterally. > 0.5 signifies local inflammation and abnormal neurologic fxn. (neuropathophysiology)
thermography is...
the only non invasive way to quantitatively measure neurologic function. (titronics C3000)
establishing a pattern:
requires 3+ scans
10 min b/n scans
graphs must match in shape at least 3X
thermography protocol
loosen collar
acclimate 10 min
adjust if indicated
rest 10-15m
re scan
thermography benefits
-objetive measure for care
-demonstrates whether a neurologic change occurred with the adjustment
-allows for readjustment if necessary
-pts aren't over or under adjusted
non symptom based
practice builder
spinal canal
canal diameter increases from C1-L5
spinal cord
diameter decreases from C1-L1 (lgest part of the spinal cord is found in the smallest part of the spinal canal
intervertebral foramina
the IVFs increase in diameter from C1to L5
the dura mater
attaches to:
-foramen magnum
-post. vert. bodies of C1, C2,C3
-filum terminale at the coccyx
odontoid process
the tip of the odontoid abuts the lowermost portion of the pons and most of the medulla oblongata
medulla oblongata
connected by the pons to the midbrain and is continuous with the spinal cord. the medulla encloses the 4th ventricle and contains nuclei assc. with most of the cranial NN.
atlanto-axial articulation is comprised of 4 jts.
1-encapsulated pivot articulation b/n the post. aspect of the ant. arch of atlas and the ant. aspect of the odontoid process.
2-encapsulated pivot articulation b/n the post aspect of the odontoid process and the transverse lig.
3&4-two arthroidal joints b/n the articular processes of c1 and c2
supportive ligaments
1-two articular capsules
2-ant. atlantoaxial lig.
3-post. atlantoaxial lig.
4-transverse lig: a thick, strong band retaining contact b/n the odontoid and the ant arch that is firmly attached on the medial surface of the lateral masses.
atlanto-occipital articulation:
two condyloid joints and 4 supportive ligaments:
-2 articular capsules
-the ant & post atlantooccipital membranes.
axial-occipital relationship
consists of ligamentous attachments ONLY
-alar "check" lig.
_apical odontoid lig.
the absence of typical facet joints to guide and limit motion allows for considerable ROM but also renders the region relatively unstable.
atlas biomechanics
if atlas is moving normally, it will translate laterally toward side of head tilt.
axis biomechanics
if axis is moving normally, axis body/dens will follow atlas laterality and the SP will rotate AWAY from the isde of atlas laterality.
the paradoxical tilt of atlas:
when, during cervical flexion, occiput and atlas approach eachother.
slight side:
side gliding b/n occiput and atlas, a couple mm
extreme example of slight side:
burst/jefferson fracture: lateral masses move out and shear off!
atlas is like a "restrictor plate", acting to keep...
occiput and C2 in check.
brainstem controls and coordinates the basic life fxns of:
respiration, CV fxn, GI fxn, equilibrium & support of the body against gravity (posture)
medulla oblongata controls:
autonomic functions and relays nerve signals b/n brain & spinal cord.
various medullary nuclei also fxn as centers for several reflexes such as:
heart rate
blood vessel diameter
the pons contains:
nuclei for cranial NN> V, VI, VVII, VIII
other important pontine areas include:
pontine sleep center & respiratory center.
the brainstem HAS motor function
mechanoreceptor cascade:
mechanoreceptors>>>> cerebellum>>>thalamus>>> cortex>> hypothalamus (traffic controller, endocrine fxns, autonomics)
hypothalamus control cascade:
hypothalamus>>> pit. gland>>> hormone secretions>>> vascular system influence
hypothalamus>>> sympathetic nervous system
hypo.>>> periaquiductal grey>>> pain inhibition via opiate receptors
vestibular nuclei go to:
spinal muscles
MN of the vagus