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43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are Attribution theories and name three theorists.
Attribution theories focus on causal explanations that people generate to explain why a particular event/outcome has occured.
Theorists: Heidler, Kelley, Weiner
What was Heidler's Attribution Theory?
Orignial attribution theory that said people make "dispositional" or "situational" attributions.
What was Kelley's attribution theory?
People consider 3 types of info when making attributes...consistency of behavior, distinctiveness (unique to situation?), and consensus (would others behave the same way). Hi consistency with low distinctiveness & low consesus = internal attribution. Hi consistency w/high distinctiveness & hi consensus = external attribution.
WHat was Weiner's attribution theory?
In addition to examining internal vs. external dimensions, Weiner also looked at whether attributions are made to stable vs. unstable factors. ex. bad luck = unstable external factor and bad economy = stable external factor
What types of attributions are associated with depression?
attribute negative events to internal, stable, and global causes.
What is Fundamental Attribution Bias?
Attribute behavior of others to internal causes.
What is actor/observer bias?
Attribute own actions to external causes.
What is self-serving bias?
Attribute our own success to internal causes and failures to external factors.
What are Heuristics and name three types.
Heuristics are rules of thum people use to categorize things. "availability heuristic," "representative heuristic," & "simulation heuristic."
What is Availability Heuristic?
People estimate the likelihood of a situation by how easily they recall ir and are exposed to it.
What is the represtentative heuristic?
People make judgments about events/people based on what they believe to be a typical example.
What is simulation heuristic?
People develop mental images of situations and then use these images to make judgments and facts in their lives.
What are the Consistency Theories based on and name three of them?
They propose that attitudes and change are organized by a need to impose structure & order on environment. Balance theory, congruity theory, and cognitive dissonance
Balance Theory
In interpersonal communication all elements seek balance.
Balance = all elements + or one element + and 2 -
unbalanced = all elements - or one element - and 2 +
Congruity theory
equilibruim = 2 objects equally evaluated.
Imbalance = 2 objects inequally evaluated
Cognitive dissonance
(Festinger) People change attitudes to decrease aversive arousal 2/2 to inconsistency in cog's or behaviors and cog's.
Name and describe 4 situations in which attitude change results from cognitive dissonance.
1. Post-decision dissonance - 2 choices, upset about not choosing one, emphasizes + features of one chosen.
2. Effort justification - emphasize positive qualities of effort spent on a goal that turned out to be unworthwhile.
3. Insufficient justification - emphasize + qualities of an undesirable behavior performed for little inducement.
4. Insufficient deterrence - emphasize - aspect of an action that was not performed b/c of small deterrent.
What is overjustification hypothesis?
People lose interest in previously desirable activities after performing them for too much justification. Ex. child enjoys reading, child gets paid to read and soon attributes his joy of reading to the $$. Take away the $$ and child stops reading.
What are the three factors most important in persuasion?
Source of message, the message, and the audience.
What are important factors about the source of information that influence pursuasive messages?
With unimportant messages, the sources is most influential when they are likeable, similar to recipient, and attractive. With important matters, the sources is most influential when they are credible (trustworthy and expertise).
Sleeper effect
Over time the message is remembered but the source is forgotten.
What are key factors that make the message more persuasive?
Logic and reason are best unless the emotional appeal of fear can be used. Primacy effect - to influence an event in the distant future, the information presented early will be most remembered. Recency effect - to influence an upcoming event, the most recent info is most important.
What are key factors that make the audience more susceptible to persuasive message?
People with moderate self esteem, who have a moderate discrepancy in attitude, & higher level of involvement with product or idea are easiest to influence. With intelligent, well-informed, and initially opposed people, presenting both sides of an argument is best. With unintelligent, uninformed, agreeable audience, present only supporting info.
When an audience feels pressured and resistance increases this is known as___.
What are two routes of persuasion?
Peripheral - people are influenced by the context of message.
Central - attitude change involves contemplation, questioning, and elaboration of argument. This type of attitude change is enduring and most predictive of behavior change.
Your husband goes to look at vehicles at the local dealer but promises he does not want to buy anything. You give him a mild argument in favor of purchasing a new vehicle. Does this make him more or less likely to be persuaded by the care salesman and why?
He is less likely to be persuaded because you have "inoculated" him with a milder dose of the persuasive message the salesman will give and therefore increased his resistance (like the flu shot).
___ arises when people are forced to make a choice b/n at least 2 incompatible choices. Name three types and describe.
Approach/approach - choose b/n 2 favorable options.
Approach/avoidance - choosing something with good and bad results.
Avoidance/avoidance - choosing b/n 2 unpleasant choices.
Name and describe 5 sources of prejudice.
1. Learned prejudice - operant, social, and classical conditioning.
2. Personality traits - authoritarian is associated with prejudice
3. Cognitive processes - ingroup favoritism & outgroup homogeneity
4. Competition for limited resourced.
5. Displaced aggression- when source of frustration is bigger, capable of retaliating, or ambiguous, aggression is taken out on innocent victims.
Name 3 things that will reduce prejudice.
1. Cooperation not competition.
2. Superordinate goals - focus on bigger goals than either group requiring cooperation.
3. Increased contact = decreased hostility.
Sherif's (1966) Robber's Cave study showed how groups can be united and divided through eliciting cooperation and competition. How did he do this.
Subjects: 11 & 12 yo boys at camp.
They were broken into two groups and strong ingroup and outgroup biases were developed through competition between the two groups. Later the two groups were merged and cohesion and decreased prejudice to each other was developed through cooperative games and activities.
Whose theory of emotion is the following:
Emotions are ID'd & perceived 2/2 to bodily rxn's.
James Lang
This theory is not well supported in research
Whose theory of emotion is the following:
Emotions (limbic system activation) and bodily rxn's (hypothalamus activation) occur simultaneously and are not dependent on one another.
Cannon Bard
This theory has some animal research support
Whose theory of emotion is the following:
Emotion is an interaction b/n internal physiological rxn and cognitive labeling of environment.
Shachter's 2 Factor Theory
Which impression is most enduring...
1. 1st impression
2. Demonstrated competence
A person is judged more competent if their initial 1st impression conveys this than someone who shows a poor 1st impression but demonstrates competence.
In Rosenhan's (1973) study, normal subjects presented to the ER reporting "hearing voices". After the initial endorsement of hearing voices, they never again talked about hearing voices. All but one was admitted and the average LOS was 19days even though these were "normal" people who made one comment about "hearing voices" one time prior to admit. How does this study relate to impression formation?
People create social schemas about people in an attempt to develop coherent and meaningful impressions so they know how to react to them.
What are the 4 factors related to attraction?
1. Physical appearance - most important factor in initial like or love.
2. Close proximity
3. Similarity of values and social background - most important in long term relation
4. reciprocity hypothesis - people like others who like them.
Arousal heightens attraction. How did Schachter (1959) show this.
Subjects who believed theywere to receive a painful shock affiliated with one another more so than subjects who did not believe they were to receive a shock. Misery loves company.
Describe the 2 internal factors associated with aggression.
Biological - aggression centers in the brain (limbic system) and aggression hormones (i.e., testosterone).
Give 4 external factors of aggression.
Frustration, social learning (i.e., modeling), group membersion (i.e., deindividuation, group roles), crowding
Sherif (1935) and Asch (1951) demonstrated conformity to a group in their studies. How?
Sherif - used the autokinetic effect. Subjects were more likely to believe a non-moving light was moving when confederates before them said it was.
Asch - subjects were instructed to compare two line segments and report which was longer. When a series of confederates made an obvious wrong choice, subjects were more likely to give the obviously wrong answer.
What was Milgrim's (1963, 1974) studies about?
Obedience. 65% of subjects obeyed the commands of the experimenter and administered the most severe shock.
What are key factors of obedience?
1. power of authority
2. Placement of responsibility elsewhere.
3. Gradualism - includes "foot-in-the-door" technique
What has been shown to reduce obedience?
Observation of disobedient model.