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7 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Where was Tiwanaku located and how long ago did it exist?
Located at an elevation of 3 870m in modern day Bolivia.

Shores of Lake Titicaca. Reached zenith at A.D. 400
What were the characteristics of Tiwanaku?
-Had palaces, temples and platforms.
-Also massive monoliths depicting Ponce and Bennett Deities.
-enormous works crafted from single pieces of stone.
What was Tiwanaku's agricultural system like?
Highly productive ag. system;
-pattern of raised feilds
-huge platforms of rich soil surrounded by lower swales
-carefully engineered agricultural facilities.
-low lying areas between raised fields allowed H2O of Lake Titicaca to flow between plantings.
-design ensured that water does not perculate up through mounds damaging plants.
-standing H2O b/w mounds=rich organic soup=scoop up-fertilized fields.
-was core of Tiwanaku power and wealth.
How was rule legitimized?
Morris and von Hagen; legitimized through religion. Elite position was the natural order of things.
What site were the agricultural mounds found at?
Pampa Koani; 1st layer stone cobble
2nd layer of clay
3rd layer three seperate
sheets of gravel
4th layer productive
Why was complexity necessary?
to produce, maintain and expand highly engineered ag. system.

This order was reinforced by religious symbolism and monumental construction.
What was the population of Tiwanaku?
Up to 1 million,

elite ruled over vast area of hamlets, the dwellings of the commoners.